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北美留学生代写:低级和高级快乐

关于约翰•斯图亚特•密尔(John Stuart Mill)对高级和低级快乐的分类,对边沁功利主义等简单理论版本的普遍批评是,“它们将人类生活的微妙之处简化为对动物般的快乐的赤裸裸的计算,而不关心这些快乐是如何产生的。”这给功利主义带来了一个坏名声,它经常被嘲笑为“只有猪才配得上的教条”。经典哲学,密尔功利主义。约翰•斯图亚特•密尔(John Stuart Mill)用与杰里米•边沁(Jeremy Bentham)的“简单”版本不同的版本,为功利主义免受此类批评进行了辩护:密尔对高、低快乐的区分提出,智力上的快乐在本质上比身体上的快乐更有价值。然而边沁却把所有的快乐视为平等的。所以,当功利主义被描述为只配得上猪的教条时,密尔认为做一个不满意的人比做一头满意的猪要好;宁可做一个不满意的苏格拉底,也不要做一个满意的傻瓜。他的辩护理由是,人类既能享受身体上的快乐,也能享受智力上的快乐,而猪却不能享受智力上的快乐。在他看来,经历过智力愉悦的人类会更喜欢智力愉悦而不是身体愉悦。那些仍然被低级肉体的人引入歧途的人,正在为即时的感官满足而堕落,尽管他们非常清楚高级的、智力上的愉悦更有价值。约翰•斯图尔特•米尔(John Stuart Mil)关于更高和更低快乐的观点被认为是有缺陷的。有人批评这是一种自私的想法。例如,一个知识分子会把他喜欢的娱乐视为一种更高、更重要的乐趣。因此,作为一名知识分子,我们可以说密尔本人对构成更高和更低快乐的东西有偏见。

北美留学生代写:低级和高级快乐

In relation to John Stuart Mill’s classification of higher and lower pleasures, a common criticism of simple versions of the theory such as Bentham’s utilitarianism is that “they reduce the subtleties of human life to a stark calculation of animal-like pleasures, with no concern for how these pleasures are produced.” This gave utilitarianism a bad name and it was often mocked as a “doctrine only worthy of swine”. (philosophy of the classics, mill utilitarianism). John Stuart Mill defends utilitarianism from such criticism with his version which differs from Jeremy Bentham’s “simple” version: Mill’s differentiation between higher and lower pleasures puts forward that intellectual pleasures are intrinsically more valuable that physical pleasures. Bentham however treats all pleasures as equal to each other. So, when utilitarianism is described as a doctrine worthy only of swine, Mill argues that it is better to be a dissatisfied human being than a satisfied pig; and better to be a dissatisfied Socrates than a satisfied fool. His defence is that human beings are capable of intellectual pleasures as well as physical ones, whereas pigs cannot enjoy intellectual pleasures. In his view, humans who have experienced intellectual pleasures will prefer them to lower, physical ones. Those who still are lead astray by lower physical ones are falling for immediate sensual gratification, even though they know full well that higher, intellectual pleasures are more worthwhile.John Stuart Mil’s idea of higher and lower pleasures has been viewed as flawed in itself. It has been criticised as a self-serving idea. For example, an intellectual will view his preferred enjoyments as a higher, more important pleasure. Therefore, as an intellectual, it could be argued that Mill himself is biased towards what constitutes as higher and lower pleasures.

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