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北美留学生代写作业:智能方法

第五种方法是智能,“设计”的论点。在这个论点中,换句话说,身体朝着一个我们不理解的目标工作,而大多数自然事物缺乏知识。例如,在箭的情况下,箭的方向是由智慧以弓箭手的形式指引的。因此,人类也被一个我们称为上帝的存有引导到我们的自然身体正在朝着的目标。虽然这个论点是关于上帝存在的最流行的论点之一,阿奎那在他的推理中却无意中犯了一个错误。他声称自然界的生物并不掌握自己的知识。然而,在他举的例子中,他给了人类智慧——如果一个弓箭手很聪明,他可以指挥一支箭射中目标。那么,为什么弓箭手不具备阿奎那所说的上帝赐予他的智慧,去寻找他自己的目标,也就是他自己的“目标”呢?问题在于对情报的要求。大多数的自然事物不具备知识,包括人类。然而,人类是指引一支箭所需要的智慧,同时又缺乏达到人类“目标”所需要的智慧,按照阿奎那的说法,这只能由另一个被假定为上帝的智慧来完成。可以提出的反对意见是,人类要么是,要么不是,作为自然的存在,智慧的存在。如果我们是有智慧的人,我们可以找到自己的道路去我们的目标,没有被认为是上帝的指导力量。如果我们不聪明,我们就没有足够的知识来指引箭头指向目标。无论哪一种选择,阿奎那关于上帝存在的五种论证中关于设计的论证都是站不住脚的。

北美留学生代写作业:智能方法

The fifth of these ways is the intelligence, “design” argument. In this argument, to paraphrase, bodies work toward a goal that we do not understand, and most natural things lack knowledge. In the case of an arrow, for instance, the direction of the arrow is being directed by intelligence in the form of the archer. Therefore so too humans are directed to the goal our natural bodies are working toward by a being we call God. Though this argument is one of the more popular arguments for the existence of God, Aquinas has inadvertently made a mistake in his reasoning. He claims that natural beings do not hold knowledge of their own. However, he gives humans intelligence in his example with the arrow – if an archer is intelligent he can direct an arrow to hit a target. Why, then, does the archer not possess the intelligence Aquinas says is given him by God to find his own goal, his own “target,” so to speak.The issue lies in the claim of intelligence. Most natural things do not possess knowledge, including humans. However humans are the intelligence it takes to direct an arrow and simultaneously lacking the intelligence needed to reach the human’s “target,” which according to Aquinas can only be accomplished by another intelligent being assumed to be God.The objection that can be raised is that either humans are or are not, as natural beings, intelligent beings. If we are intelligent beings, we can find our own path to our target without the guiding force that is assumed to be God. If we are not intelligent beings, we are not knowledgeable enough to direct an arrow to its target. With either option the argument for design in the five arguments for the existence of God by Aquinas falls apart with little picking at the seams.

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