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从霍布斯对主权的推导,我们可以看到他对主权的阐述,他的社会契约的条款。最令人震惊的是主权是不可分割的(霍布斯115):统治的基本要素是不可分割的。所有主权权力都必须属于同一机构。霍布斯认为,政府的分立,充其量是多余的。从理论的角度来看,当事态发展到紧要关头时,政府的一部分,即控制军队的那一部分,恰恰会因为能够控制其他权力而被揭示为主权权力的真正持有者。然而,如果没有资金支持,就不存在对军队的控制,因此征税和造钱也是必不可少的。想象一下在一个分裂的政府中发生叛乱或入侵的情景:一支能够保护税务/财政部的外部力量最终将击溃控制军队的部门。因此,为了确保一个稳定的政府,有必要把权力集中在一个地方- -以军队为例- -任何分裂都将允许对立派别彼此拆散,尽管是犹豫不决的。结合主权不可分割的事实和主体之间的社会契约(主体和主权者之间没有联系),我们得出霍布斯的观点:反抗从来都是不合理的。主权存在于一个人身上,而不是对一个人的服从,因此任何对这种服从的否定都不能解除主权的束缚,因为根本就没有束缚。


Moving on from Hobbes’s derivation of sovereignty, one comes upon his formulation of sovereignty, the terms of his social contract. What is most shocking is that sovereignty is indivisible (Hobbes 115): the foundational elements of rule cannot be separated. All the powers of sovereignty must reside in the same body. A division of government, to Hobbes, would be redundant at best. From a theoretical point of view, when push comes to shove, a part of government, namely whichever has control of the army, will be revealed as the real holder of sovereign power precisely because it can seize control of the other powers. However, control of the army is nonexistent without the ability to fund it, so taxing and the coining of money is also essential. Imagine a scenario of rebellion or invasion in a divided government: an external force capable of protecting the taxing/treasury department would eventually rout the branch that controls the military. In order to ensure a stable government, then, it would be necessary to concentrate power at one locus – using the example of the military – any division would allow for opposing factions to gut one another, albeit indecisively. Combining the fact that sovereignty is indivisible with the fact that the social contract is made amongst subjects (that there is no bond between subjects and the sovereign), one arrives at Hobbes’s insistence that rebellion is never justifiable. Sovereignty is located in a person and not obedience to a person, so any repudiation of that obedience cannot dissolve the bond of sovereignty, for there is no bond to begin with.


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