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Computer Network 代写:社会工作者指引

Computer Network 代写:社会工作者指引

社会排斥是一个广泛的概念,取决于不同的文化。它包括剥夺、社会关系、耻辱、社会隔离和社会保护的失败。这可能是在上世纪70年代,它被用来定义那些无法支付他们的保险起源于法国;总之,这些人被排除在国家管理(勒努瓦1974;杜菲1997)。这一概念是80年代和90年代初在欧盟通过的mid1990,工党政客常用术语和快1997,社会排斥单元(SEU)成立。量的增加在1990的程度,英国在欧洲的失业和未受过教育的家庭成长的儿童联盟。在这段时间内,儿童的贫困增加了两倍。辍学近四倍相比之前1990(由社会排斥单位,SEU 2001报告)。他们定义为“社会排斥˜发生在个人或地区遭受相结合的相关问题如失业、技术差、收入低、住房条件差什么都可以,高犯罪率的环境,健康和家庭破裂的。(Tania,2003)。

根据欧洲委员会(索托,2005。115)社会排斥证人的几个缺点和障碍,明知或不知情的不允许充分参与的事情,如教育,就业,健康,工作,甚至获得权利。社会排斥是一种情况,一个人远离社会或不包括在内,并认为是社会的一部分。这些可以是一组被歧视的人,可以歧视他们的种族,宗教,文化或残疾。它盛行于社会的各个阶级。它可以发生在各种正式和非正式的领域如法律、健康和教育部门。它可以是一个故意或容易识别与隐藏或无意的。

伯查特等人。(1999)建议限制和短的两个社会排斥的定义为:任何个人是社会排斥的,如果(a)他或她是社会不允许参加社会或任何文化活动(B),如果他或她不允许是任何地理区域的一部分。

社会排斥是任何人都会发生的事情。但最脆弱的包括那些生长在低收入群体,那些家庭矛盾,辍学,被前囚犯,一些少数民族的人,在贫困的邻里在城市和农村地区,心理健康问题和残疾。有时当人们离开家乡教育、疾病或保健(SEU 2001)。一般来说,社会排斥,基本上是三种类型或主要应用于三个领域:金融排斥相关的或确定的贫困,其影响参与活动;长期失业,最后排除在社会意义上的个别部分之间的社会网络和部分与整个组的人。排除的人的数量可以通过阅读和Baker在1996的778人的心理健康问题的调查研究。他们发现,残疾人34%人被迫或被从工作;69%被挫伤和推迟申请与恐惧,他们不会赢或不公平待遇;47%被虐待或骚扰公众;26%是要求由于骚扰改变房屋;50%认为他们被身体健康服务或GP的不公平对待;25%被拒绝由保险公司。

Computer Network 代写:社会工作者指引

Social exclusion is a broad concept depending on various culture. It included deprivation, social relationships, stigma, social isolation and failures in social protection. It was probably originated in France in 1970s where it was used to define for those who could not pay their insurance; in short these were people who were excluded from the state by administration (Lenoir 1974; Duffy 1997). This concept was adopted in European Union in 1980s and early 1990s. By mid1990, the Labour politicians commonly used the term and soon in 1997, the Social Exclusion Unit (SEU) was formed. The amount increased after 1990 to an extent that UK topped in European league for children growing in household of unemployed and uneducated. Child poverty tripled during this time. School dropouts were almost four times more compared to before 1990 (Report by Social Exclusion Unit, SEU 2001). They define social exclusion as “˜what can happen when individuals or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime environments, bad health and family breakdown’. (Tania, 2003).

According to European Commission (Soto, 2005. pg 115) social exclusion witness several drawbacks and hurdles which knowingly or unknowingly does not allow full participation in things like education, employment, health, job, even access to rights. Social exclusion is a situation where an individual is kept away from society or is not included and considered a part of society. These can be a group of people who are discriminated and can be discriminated on regards to their race, religion, culture or disability. It prevails in all classes of society. It can place both officially and unofficially and at various areas like legal, health and even education sector. It can be a deliberate or easily identified vs. hidden or unintentional.

Burchardt et al. (1999) suggest a restricted and short two point definition of social exclusion as: any individual is socially excluded if (a) he or she is socially not allowed to participate in society or any cultural activities (b) if he or she is not allowed to be a part of any geographical area.

Social exclusion is something that can happen to anyone. But most vulnerable include those growing in low income group, those with family conflicts, dropouts, being ex-prisoner, people with some minority ethnic community, in a deprived neighbourhood in urban and rural areas, mental health problems and disability. There are sometimes when people leave home for education or illness or care (SEU 2001). In general, social exclusion is basically for three types or is mainly used in three areas: financial- exclusion is associated or identified with poverty, and its effect to participate in general activities; long-term unemployment and lastly exclusion is in social sense where the individual is partly between social networks and partly with stigmatised group of people. The amount of people excluded can be studied by a survey of 778 people with mental health problems by Read and Baker in 1996. they found that 34% of the disabled were forced or were removed from job; 69% had been discouraged and put off for applying with the fear that they will never win or unfair treatment; 47% had been abused or harassed in the public; 26% were asked to change the houses due to harassment; 50% felt that they had been treated unfairly by physical health services or GP’s; and 25% had been turned down by insurance companies.

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