Computer Network 代写:社会工作者指引
Computer Network 代写:社会工作者指引
Social exclusion is a broad concept depending on various culture. It included deprivation, social relationships, stigma, social isolation and failures in social protection. It was probably originated in France in 1970s where it was used to define for those who could not pay their insurance; in short these were people who were excluded from the state by administration (Lenoir 1974; Duffy 1997). This concept was adopted in European Union in 1980s and early 1990s. By mid1990, the Labour politicians commonly used the term and soon in 1997, the Social Exclusion Unit (SEU) was formed. The amount increased after 1990 to an extent that UK topped in European league for children growing in household of unemployed and uneducated. Child poverty tripled during this time. School dropouts were almost four times more compared to before 1990 (Report by Social Exclusion Unit, SEU 2001). They define social exclusion as "˜what can happen when individuals or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime environments, bad health and family breakdown'. (Tania, 2003).
According to European Commission (Soto, 2005. pg 115) social exclusion witness several drawbacks and hurdles which knowingly or unknowingly does not allow full participation in things like education, employment, health, job, even access to rights. Social exclusion is a situation where an individual is kept away from society or is not included and considered a part of society. These can be a group of people who are discriminated and can be discriminated on regards to their race, religion, culture or disability. It prevails in all classes of society. It can place both officially and unofficially and at various areas like legal, health and even education sector. It can be a deliberate or easily identified vs. hidden or unintentional.
Burchardt et al. (1999) suggest a restricted and short two point definition of social exclusion as: any individual is socially excluded if (a) he or she is socially not allowed to participate in society or any cultural activities (b) if he or she is not allowed to be a part of any geographical area.
Social exclusion is something that can happen to anyone. But most vulnerable include those growing in low income group, those with family conflicts, dropouts, being ex-prisoner, people with some minority ethnic community, in a deprived neighbourhood in urban and rural areas, mental health problems and disability. There are sometimes when people leave home for education or illness or care (SEU 2001). In general, social exclusion is basically for three types or is mainly used in three areas: financial- exclusion is associated or identified with poverty, and its effect to participate in general activities; long-term unemployment and lastly exclusion is in social sense where the individual is partly between social networks and partly with stigmatised group of people. The amount of people excluded can be studied by a survey of 778 people with mental health problems by Read and Baker in 1996. they found that 34% of the disabled were forced or were removed from job; 69% had been discouraged and put off for applying with the fear that they will never win or unfair treatment; 47% had been abused or harassed in the public; 26% were asked to change the houses due to harassment; 50% felt that they had been treated unfairly by physical health services or GP's; and 25% had been turned down by insurance companies.