Education Essay 代写: 体育休闲环境
This report as part of the ISRM Higher Professional Diploma in Sport and Recreational Management has been undertaken to both explore and look at the role sport plays in society, in particular how sport and leisure has developed in the last twenty years. It will also provide an explanation to the variations to the structure of the sport and recreational sector with an insight to the roles and functions of key organisations, organisations such as Clubmark, Inclusive Fitness Initiative and the English Federation of Disability Sport.
In addition it will review the leisure industry as one of the fastest growing industries in the world, fed by an expansion of people's leisure time and spending. It will also provide awareness regarding the various schemes that have been put in place by local and central government to help accommodate people from all backgrounds, gender, race and ability.
In recent years the UK leisure industry has grown and become wide-ranging in terms of ownership, with a substantial input from commercial, charitable, public and voluntary sector providers. Leisure now accounts for almost 30% of total consumer spending, and has grown in significance to such an extent that a specialist government department has been established called the Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) to oversee and push forward projects and programs within the sport sector.
Projects include the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games and support the bid to bring the 2018 World Cup to England. Their main objective is to improve the quality of life for all through cultural and sporting activities, to support the pursuit of excellence and to champion the tourism, creative and leisure industries. (DCMS 2011)
This is achieved by providing advice for Ministers to enable them to coerce sport sector projects and programmes, and work with the sports delivery Non-Departmental Public Bodies (NDPBs). The bodies include, Sport England, UK Sport and UK Anti-Doping. In addition the DCMS also support initiatives to promote equality in sport and works closely with the HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) and the Central Council of Physical Recreation (CCPR) to promote the Community Armature Sports Club which offer tax relief to local amateur sports clubs.
Clubmark is a multi-sport accreditation introduced in 2002 by Sport England to support amateur clubs with junior participants. Clubmark is designed to help sports clubs develop through proper planning and by making sure that proper procedures are in place to cover all eventualities. The aim is to empower parents when selecting a club for their children. When clubs achieve their own sports' Award, they will also receive Clubmark whichÂ allows parents to easily recognise quality clubs, whatever the sport, because of the one cross-sport quality kite mark.
The Clubmark accreditation is only awarded to clubs that comply with the following four standards:
Duty of care and safety
Quality of coaching and competition
Fairness of opportunity (equity)
The benefits from achieving accreditation can include, increased membership benefiting from the raised profile on the Clubmark database and parent confidence. It will also provide the necessary support for developing coaches and volunteers within the qualifying clubs.
Social exclusion has been defined by the Department of International Development (DFID) as a process by which certain groups are systematically disadvantaged because they are discriminated against on the basis of their ethnicity, race, religion, sexual orientation, caste, descent, gender, age, disability, HIV status, migrant status or where they live.
To address the issues the Government formed a task force in 1997 to identify the people most at risk. In 2006 the task force was closed down and transferred to the Social Exclusion Unit, It is smaller than the original and sits within the Cabinet Office. It concentrates on preventative policies for hard to reach children and families deemed to have been immune from the government's drives against social exclusion to date.
Policy Action Team 10 (PAT 10)
In 1997 the New Labour Government assembled the Social Exclusion Unit better known as the SEU. The unit was tasked with reporting on how to develop an integrated and workable method to deal with the problems of the worst housing estates and the report was also to include crime, drugs, unemployment, breakdowns in community and poor schools.
The report titles "Bringing Britain Together" produced findings that led to the setup of a number of policy action teams, the team was known as PAT 10.
The belief and outcome was that if youths were to take part in more sporting activities that youth crime figures would drop, this theory has now become the business focus for Sport Development.
The Inclusive Fitness Initiative (IFI) has been established to support the fitness industry to become more inclusive, serving the needs of both disabled and non-disabled people alike.
IFI has been working in collaboration with the fitness equipment manufacturers i.e. Lifefitness and Pro-fitness for almost a decade to make sure that the equipment available on the market is as inclusive as possible.
The accredited equipment is intended for all users and is not specifically targeted at disabled people.Â Â IFI has worked together with the industry to design a list of fitness equipment, the only list of its kind in the world.Â Â
To ensure that as many disabled people as possible benefit from both a cardiovascular and resistance based workout, IFI suggests a minimum package of fitness equipment.
The suggested minimum package includes:
Upright and/or recumbent cycle
Upper body ergometer
Leg extension/leg press
Upper body resistance equipment including chest press, row, shoulder press and lat pull-down or equivalent upper body multi-station
Package of small equipment
In 2001, the Child Protection in Sport Unit was launched and jointly-funded by Sport England and the NSPCC. The main purpose of the unit is to help children play sport, stay safe, enjoy and achieve. It has established Safeguarding Standards for Protecting Children in Sport which national governing bodies andÂ County Sports Partnerships (CSPs) are required to adopt as part of their statutory responsibilities, and best practice.
There are three levels of achievement:
To qualify for the intermediate and advanced levels, organisations need to show commitment and action in keeping children and young people safe. The tiered standards give parents, staff and volunteers confidence that the overall sporting experience for young people is being actively monitored, and that safety and welfare issues are taken seriously.
Knowsley Borough Council has identified the fact that they operate in a deprived area of the country and that the residents cannot be discriminated against due to this social deprivation.
It acknowledges that it has an obligation to its residents to provide them with local affordable facilities. Knowsley therefore operates a reduced rate policy that enables families and single people on low incomes to take part in the activities that they provide for half of the normal charge. This facility is called a Leisure Pass, to qualify for a leisure pass the individual must provide the centre with proof that they are on benefits or a low income.
In addition to the leisure pass Knowsley accepts the fact that, due to the local deprivation, many families cannot afford to pay for their children to attend the Sports Centres, especially if they have more than one child to consider. Knowsley has therefore Knowsley introduced a further scheme called the Young Persons Initiative. It allows any child under the age of 19 to apply for a passport to leisure card. This card then allows the owner to attend swimming sessions at any of the 4 pools, free of charge.
Activity for life ( GP Referrals)
Knowsley MBC also works closely with the local Doctors and PCT (Primary Care
Trust) to ensure that people who have suffered from ill health are not discriminated against and can take part in physical activity.
Knowsley's GP referral scheme is known as Activity for Life. Activity for Life have an enthusiastic team that work with the customer who has been referred by their doctor, to partake in some low impact activities that will help to increase a their quality of life. Although the course is free of charge for 12 weeks, the council does gain the
funding from the PCT that subsidise this scheme. After this they can then take out a leisure pass, as mentioned above or one of the memberships.
Gold and Silver memberships
As previously stated, Knowsley MBC does recognises the fact that it needs to price its activities at competitive prices within the reach of people and families on low incomes.
Due to this Knowsley MBC provides members of the public with two monthly membership subscription opportunities. Firstly there is the Gold Card membership, for this the customer can attend the centre as many times as they want at whatever time they want during the normal opening hours of the centre. Alternatively they can opt for the silver card membership this has all the same functionality as the Gold card except that it imposes time restrictions, you must enter the centre before 4.30pm. Anyone that is entitled to a Leisure Pass can purchase a Silver card half price.
Future of Sport and Society
The Next Step Conference was established in 2003. In 2007 the conference was organised by the UK Sport in partnership with the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa (SCSA). Over 350 delegates worldwide attended the conference which focused on sport's contribution to the building of a peaceful and better world by empowering young sports leaders to champion the Olympic values of friendship and fair play.
In November 2010 more than 300 leading practitioners in sport and development will converge on Cape Town, South Africa, for the fourth Next Step Sport and Development Conference. The Next Step 2010 Conference is being organised by SCORE International and will provide practitioners and policy makers with an opportunity to reflect, engage, debate, network and help chart the way forward for the sector. (The Next Step 2010 Conference)
Knowsley Borough Council strives to meet the expectations of the community that it serves with regards to health, fitness, sport and leisure. Knowsley embraces both the Government initiatives (PAT 10, White Paper) that are in place and any recommendations including that of Charter Mark, Club mark and Inclusive Fitness.
It's recommended that the Knowsley extend the sport and recreation family orientated facilities to improve on present engagement. Knowsley tends to offer sessions that are either restricted to children or adults only, families should be encouraged to utilise and take advantage of the facilities available.
The leisure pass that enables half price sessions should be extended to all children, regardless of their family income. This would increase the participation of younger users which may influence a reduction in crime and disorder as stated with the PAT 10 theory and to help support and reduce childhood obesity.
Whilst both participation and retention rates for sport and leisure are fairly competitive they can be improved, as long as there's capacity to do so. For Knowsley sport and leisure to compete it must improve the service offered to customers. Equipment maintenance and repairs must be improved; contracts presently in place must be reviewed and agreed with contractors.
It must be realised that the local authority no longer dominates the health and fitness industry and that a constant battle for customers exists with the private sector. Knowsley must endeavour to offer the same if not better service, than the private fitness clubs, however as a local authority Knowsley must still offer value for money while embracing the varied needs of the customer within its community.