Pakistan is blessed by many things; forests are one of them, which cover 4.224 million Hectare (ha) which is 4.8% of the total land area (Wildlife of Pakistan). Out of these 4604 ha area is covered by forests in Khyber-pakhun-khwa (KPK) and Northern areas. Â Between 1981 and 1990, there had been a 4.3% decrease in forest areas of the Tropical Asia and Oceania, which Pakistan is a part of. During 21st century, 1.6% deforestation had been occurring each year. This is an alarming situation and needs to be stalled and then reversed, if possible (Wildlife Pakistan).
Deforestation is a great threat against ecosystem and deteriorating the relationship between human and ecosystem. It is a main reason of Global Warming. The conventional view of deforestation is that rural people overexploits forests for local consumptive use and also the timber and woods traders using all possible ways to smuggle woods. The demand of people of consumption of wood is increasing, according to bureau of statistics; the consumption of wood in 1993 was 29.5 million cubic meters where as in the year 2010 it was around 50 million cubic meters. Pakistan, at present, is producing only 14 million cubic meters of wood.
Over 80 percent of the population in KPK is below the poverty level, which consumes available natural resources for their survival, which results to deforestation.
Khan and Pervaiz (2001) point out that forest management in Pakistan has led to the divergence of individual versus social objectives with regard to the use of forest resources. The most important factor in this development is commercial timber extraction in which influential extractors collude with forest department officials. Co-opting officials has become easier as stagnant salaries have led to increased corruption. Forest fines and penalties have also become meaningless, as they have not kept pace with rising timber and fuel wood prices.
Deforestation contributes in the lacking of Biodiversity by affecting the Wild Life in forests. It is the main source of causing climate change, which results to Global warming, which is the major problem of the world, it is the reason of the dramatic change in temperature, from which Pakistan is suffering. No recycling of water, less carbondioxcide and nitrogen exchange, more decertification, soil erosion, decrease in rainfall rate indicates the alarming rate of deforestation.
Deforestation is a global problem, not only Pakistan but every country is facing this problem, either developed or 3rd world countries and it is the reason, thousands of researchers have worked on it pointing at different issues related to deforestation, such as its patterns, its impact on ecosystem, its impact on soil fertility, its impact on greenhouses gas emission, its impact on global warming, etc.
According to them, everyone whether authorities, governance qualities, locals, farmers are involved in deforestation. Population is growing and people are urbanizing, to accommodate them, new industries are established, agriculture land is growing, infrastructure, constructions, roads, buildings are developing on the cost of forests, which means forest cover area is reducing and is being used by developmental purposes. Due to this, world is suffering from global warming, soil erosion, soil infertility, greenhouse gas emission and all the problem that is effecting ecosystem, which is like a curse for the society, environment and most importantly for the future of human beings.