The literature analyzes the linkage between poverty and deforestation in Swat valley, KPK. As the poor community has no approach to energy resources like Oil and Gas, so they depend upon wood and timber more than other classes of the country, which results to deforestation. But the hypothesis of the researchers stood wrongs and they debated further that poverty has no link with deforestation.
This study has highlighted the historical, empirical and institutional aspects of deforestation. Historically, the research took out the history of 16th century, where forests were protected by the institution and departments assigned for forests by the Walis (Kings) of Swat Valley.
When in 20th century, Swat was merged into Pakistan in 1969; forests were ignored due to poor managerial and the policies of Pakistan. By reason of rapid rise in Timber prices, the forest departments, for more incentives, collude with ‘Forest Mafias’ than to protect forests. The corrupt department and the lack of communication between revenue department and forestry also helped in speeding up the exploitation of forests.
Locals of Swat valley depend on the forests for daily life use and are also a main source of income for them. Such dependency and also historical and institutional evolution clearly describe the rights of locals on these resources. It is required for Pakistan to look after the managerial skills of forestry department and prevent them for colluding with ‘Forest Mafias’. Only such policies can avoid the exploitation of these resources.
The sample were selected in the study and that was of 12 villages of Swat; in which five villages from low eco zone, four from mid zone and three from high zone. Information of household was collected by 403 households.
For the qualitative analysis 200 households were selected for information from six additional villages from high zone.
For the analysis of resource dependence, information was collected on resource income (RI) as the dependent variable and the independent variables included income from other sources or non-resource income (NRI) and livestock numbers (LS), given their potential impact on resource degradation.
The total aggregate income was derived from: natural resources (fuel wood collection, timber, fodder, no timber forest products, fish, and forest royalties); agriculture (crops and orchards as an annual figure including both kharif (summer) and rabi (winter) season crops); livestock; employment; donations/transfers; forest royalties; and rental income.
Ali, T. Ahmad, M. Shahbaz, B. &Suleri, A.(2007)
“Impact of Participatory Forest Management on Financial Assets
of Rural Communities in Northwest Pakistan”
Ecological economics 63 (2007)
Research paper indicates the relationship between forest management and the livelihood of locals of KPK. It is shown in the paper that the cash needs of local communities is not dependent on natural resources like forests but rather non-cash needs are dependent on forest like use of wood in day to day needs such as cooking, constructions etc.
Interviews with different people of local community show how forest management is difficult for locals. They say, people living on mountains are completely dependent on forest for survival as they have no other ways available, unlike people living on lowland like Punjab. It is further argued, that locals cannot be motivated for forest management before giving them economical benefits.
These are the reasons which are involved in deforestation in KPK. To avoid deforestation in KPK, government must give priority to the needs of locals which are dependent on forest such availability of resources like Oil and Gas, economical benefits etc. Locals must be employed on the conservation of forest and incentives should be given to them. Government should focus on people at macro level and should work on microcredit and infrastructure development before the implementation of macro projects.
The study shows that two main districts were selected of NWFP (KPK) which was Mansehra and Swat because these two districts were having maximum forest cover.
In these two districts there were two types of villages, project villages and non project villages. Eight villages were selected randomly which consist of four from each districts in which two were project villages and two were non project villages.
For quantitative data survey were conducted with a questionnaire. 400 households were selected in both districts. 200 were from each district in which 100 from project villages and 100 from non project villages.
Tahir, S.N.A. Rafique, M. & Alaamer, A. S. (2010)
“Biomass Fuel Burning and its Implications: Deforestation and Greenhouse Gases Emissions in Pakistan”
Environmental Pollution 158 (2010) 2490-
Keywords: Deforestation Biomass burning Brick kilns Green house gas emission
The article indicates the impact of biomass fuel burning due to deforestation and greenhouse gasses emission. Pakistan has an average population of 170 million and average growth in population is 2.4%. Whereas 54% of energy requirement is met from conventional means and the remaining 46% from natural resources like wood and coal. Forests in Pakistan cover a total area of 2.4%, and deforestation rate in Pakistan 1.68%. Gasses emission from human body and brick making in big cities s higher that fresh environment due to forests. This results to polluting of environment.
As Pakistan imports coal from foreign countries, therefore, it is expensive for brick maker to use coal, so they prefer to use wood which is comparatively cheaper, which results to deforestation.
The study has found out the consumption of wood by brick builder due to deforestation is estimated to be 1378,000 m3.
Global warming is assessed to be increasing rapidly due to high rate of greenhouse gasses emission.
Researcher has found out these results for helping others for study in same field.
For the collection of data 180 brick kilns of 18 provincial divisions in all of four provinces of Pakistan were selected. In each division 10 brick units were randomly selected and surveyed and this was questionnaire based.
The emission of total carbon is estimated by applying the basic methodology. This was done by multiplying the quantity of biomass burnt (t dm) by the fraction of biomass oxidized and the biomass carbon content (t C/t dm) (IPCC,1994). The default value of 0.9 is used for the fraction of biomass oxidized. Whereas, for woody biomass, a conversion factor of 0.5 t C/tdmis used.
(Ct = Mt *Mf)
Where in Equation (1), Ct, Mt and Mf represent total biomass burnt(tdm),fraction of biomass oxidized(0.9)and woody biomass carbon content(0.5tC/tdm) respectively.TheemissionofCO2 from fuel wood burning can be estimated by conversion of total carbon content(tC) to Carbon dioxide content (tCO2) using the conversion ratio of 44 t CO2/12 t C
(Ct = Mt _*Mf)
Qasim, M. Hubacek, K. Termansen, M. & Khan, A. (2011)
“Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Land Use Pattern in District Swat, Hindu Kush
Himalayan Region of Pakistan”
Applied Geography 31 (2011) 820-828
Land use change
According to Pakistani officials the forest are increasing due to deforestation and environmental awareness. In a contrast with Pakistani officials, international researches and statistics shows a rapid rate of increasing in deforestation have is 1.68% annually. This study is about the difference between Pakistani and international statistics.
In this study District Swat is taken as a subject matter which is a part of the high altitude Hindu Kush Himalaya region of Pakistan comprising a diverse set of biophysical, ecological and socio-economic characteristics. The forest land in converting into agriculture land and also uses for developmental reasons like roads, infrastructure and construction etc. which results to deforestation in the locality.
In Kalam, forest area is decreased by 30.5%; with 11.4% of the deforestation caused by agricultural expansion.
In Malamjaba, forests decreased by 49.7% over the last 40 years. Agricultural land expanded by 77.6%.
In the Barikot region, forest cover area decreased to 9.5% in 2007, whereas the built up areas increased by 161.4%, and agricultural land expanded by 129.9% consuming 18.96% of forest area in 2007. Annual deforestation rates observed were 1.86% in scrub forest zone, 1.28% in agro-forest zone and 0.80% in pine forest zone in Swat. Growth of agriculture has largely been achieved at the cost of forests.
It is concluded that the claim of Pakistani officials of increasing in forest is wrong but rather decreasing rapidly which is alarming.
The area where this research has done is district Swat. It is a valley located in a north west of Pakistan consists of many forests.
The study was conducted in a form of area divided into three zones i-e zone (A), zone (B) and zone (C).
The data selected through maps of different zones and its start from baseline of October 1968 then the Swat state was merged with Pakistan. The next data were selected in 1990 with 2 decades gap in which few important changes took place. The last data was taken out in 2007 which was last available data.
The other method used is remote sensing techniques using aerial photograph and satellite images. It provides the areas in the three vegetation zone.
Umemiya, C. Rametsteiner, E. Kraxner, F. ( 2010)
“Quantifying the Impacts of the Quality of Governance on
Environmental Science & policy 13, (2010) 695-701
Quality of governance
Research is about the relationship between governance quality and deforestation rate. It is said that highly skilled or lower skilled governance qualities and policies are directly linked to the rate of deforestation.
Governance quality has direct effect on deforestation along with economically and social factors, but when the deforestation rate is negative governance qualities are said to be independent.
It very complicated to make policies and develop governance qualities due to diversified methods of deforestation.
Governance qualities are directly related to deforestation, the better the governance qualities, lower will be the rate of deforestation
As the area of forests are converted into agriculture land, infrastructures etc, and management needs to improve their policies to avoid the alarming rate of deforestation.
The methodology which is used in the study is they selected six type of indicators and in addition the developed so-called overall governance indicator which was the combination of all dimensions of governance quality.
The data were selected from FAO’s Forest Resources Assessment (2006).
Six dimensions of the governance quality indicators are Voice and accountability, Political stability and absence of violence, Government effectiveness, Regulatory quality, Rule of law and Control of corruption.
Mainville, N. Webb, J. Lucotte, M. Davidson, R.
Betancourt, O. Cueva, E. & Mergler, D. (2006)
“Decrease of Soil Fertility and Release of Mercury
Following Deforestation in the Andean Amazon,
Napo River Valley, Ecuador”
Science of the Total Environment 368 (2006) 88- 98
Keywords: Deforestation; Mercury; Andean Amazon; Andisol; Inceptisol; Erosion; Soil fertility; Ecuador
Research proposed a link between deforestation, soil erosion and release of mercury in the Amazon, which is a Global concern. This study refers to evaluation of the impact of deforestation on Andisol and Inceptisol fertility and mercury level.
Due to the high rate of deforestation the soil are lost its organic power and the organic level is decreased -15% and -70% of Carbon and Nitrogen.
Mercury concentration at the surface is higher in Andisol than in Inceptisole, shows a decrease of 60% due to deforestation. Soil erosion exposed the mercury present in soil which results to its leaching.
The lower rate of deforestation play a very important role in soil fertility, because trees, its roots keeps the land from soil erosion and due to the diffusion and osmosis by the roots, the soil remains rich in mineral. Government and locals should take steps to prevent deforestation and save the earth.
The area where this study has been done is Napo River watershed in Ecuador.
Three regions were selected for the study which was Andes, foothills and basin later referred as Andes, FH and B.
On each forest and ground sampling site, three transects made of three points which was of 5, 50 and 100 m from the river and dug this area in three different depths were sampled with a total of 27 samples per site and 54 samples per zone.
Hg levels were analyzed via ANOVA statistical tests and the significance level was 95%.
The calculations were conducted with the SAS 8.0 and SPSS 11.0 software.
Lab analysis were also done in the study.
Pedlowski, M. A. Dale, V. H. Matricardi, E.A.T.
Filho, E.P.D.S. (1997)
“Patterns and Impacts of Deforestation in Rondhia, Brazil”
Landscape and Urban Planning 38 (1997) 149-157
Keywords: Tropical rain forest; Land development; Deforestation; Brazi
Research is about finding the pattern of deforestation and its impacts. Brazil has undergone through phases of development like rubber extraction, agricultural development, immigration, road expansion, and promotion of large enterprises in cattle ranching, timber extraction and mining.
The expanding of land and this process of development has increased the population and also to the rate of population. Due to which 25 % of forests cover area are cleared for this developmental process.
It is said that farmers played the biggest role in increasing the rate of deforestation. These projects and developmental phases are very harmful to the future environment.
This is qualitative study and in this study they tell about how deforestation occurs and its effects.
In the study they found that the main people who cut the forests and they were Small farmers, Cattle ranchers, Miners and Loggers.
In this study analogist differentiate these people to better understand their combined impacts on the environment.
Ali, J. Benjaminsen, T. A. Hammad, A. A. & Dick, O. B. (2005), “The Road to Deforestation: An Assessment of Forest Loss and its Causes in Basho Valley, Northern Pakistan”, Global Environmental Change 15, pp. 370-380.
Ali, T. Ahmad, M. Shahbaz, B. &Suleri, A.(2007), “Impact of Participatory Forest Management on Financial Assets of Rural Communities in Northwest Pakistan”, Ecological economics 63, pp. 588-593
Khan, S. R. & Khan, S. R. (2009), “Assessing Poverty: Deforestation Links: Evidence from Swat, Pakistan”,Ecological Economics 68, pp. 2607-2618
Mainville, N. Webb, J. Lucotte, M. Davidson, R. Betancourt, O. Cueva, E. & Mergler, D. (2006) “Decrease of Soil Fertility and Release of Mercury Following Deforestation in the Andean Amazon, Napo River Valley, Ecuador”, Science of the Total Environment 368, pp. 88- 98
Pedlowski, M. A. Dale, V. H. Matricardi, E.A.T. Filho, E.P.D.S. (1997) “Patterns and Impacts of Deforestation in Rondhia, Brazil”, Landscape and Urban Planning 38, pp. 149-157
Tahir, S.N.A. Rafique, M. & Alaamer, A. S. (2010), “Biomass Fuel Burning and its Implications: Deforestation and Greenhouse Gases Emissions in Pakistan”, Environmental Pollution 158, pp. 2490-2495
Tahir, S.N.A. Rafique, M. & Alaamer, A. S. (2010), “Spatial and temporal dynamics of land use pattern in District Swat, Hindu Kush Himalayan region of Pakistan”, Applied Geography 31, pp. 820-828
Umemiya, C. Rametsteiner, E. Kraxner, F. (2010), “Quantifying the Impacts of the Quality of Governance on Deforestation”, Environmental Science & policy 13, pp. 695-701