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教育论文代写 TRIBAL WOMEN AND THEIR BASIC EDUCATION

 

INTRODUCTION

教育和识字可以被视为妇女进入社会经济生活的重要先决条件。除了提供更大的就业机会,在技术和声望高的高收入工作,女性的教育和培训有重要的后果,为整个家庭的福利,以及为其个别成员。其中,母亲的家庭拥有高于平均水平的教育,她更可能进入劳动力市场,并用她的补充收入,提高家庭的幸福水平。此外,大多数来自世界各地的研究已经发现了一种关系,是一个女人的教育和生育能力之间的反比,这是积极的教育她和她孩子的早期生存机会之间(Ghazi,1985)。一个孩子的学业成就也可能与它的母亲的教育水平密切相关。妇女的教育地位,因此是社会发展阶段和潜在的进步变化的关键指标。

识字是部落群体发展的一个重要指标。在广大妇女中,识字率高导致较低的婴儿死亡率(金,1999;世界银行,1997),减少怀孕次数和提高国内生活和社会妇女的地位。此外,母亲的素养状况和受教育程度对孩子的人力资本水平有显著正向影响(Sengupta和Guha,2002;科尔克拉夫,1982)。部落人口,在一般情况下,落后于印度教徒和计划的种姓人口在识字和教育程度。这种在人类资本实现的主流人口和部落之间的差异是特别显着的部落妇女之间。然而,在印度的预定部落的识字率也大幅提高,从1961(8.54 %)至2001(47.10 %),男性(13.04 %至59.17 %)和女性(分别为2.89 %至34.76 %)分别。

Education and literacy can be viewed as essential prerequisites for the full integration of women into the social and economic life of the nation. Apart from providing greater opportunity for employment in the skilled and prestigious high-income jobs, female education and training have important consequences for the whole family’s welfare, as well as for its individual members. Where the mother of the household has above average education she is more likely to enter the labour market and use her supplementary income to raise the standard of well-being of the family. In addition, most studies from around the world have found a relationship that is inverse between a woman’s education and her fertility, and that is positive between her education and the early survival chances of her child (Ghazi, 1985). A child’s academic achievement is also likely to be closely associated with its mother’s level of schooling. The educational status of women therefore is the key indicator of the stage of societal development and the potential for progressive change.

Literacy is an important indicator of development among tribal groups. Among women in general, high literacy rates lead to lower infant mortality rates (Kingdon, 1999; World Bank, 1997), reduce the number of pregnancies and enhance the status of women both in domestic life and society. Additionally, the mother’s literacy status and educational attainment have significantly positive effects on the child’s human capital attainment (Sengupta and Guha, 2002; Colclough, 1982). The tribal population, in general, lags behind the Hindus and the Scheduled Caste population both in literacy and educational attainment. This discrepancy in human capital attainment between the mainstream population and the tribes is particularly marked among tribal women. However, the literacy rates for scheduled tribes in India have also improved substantially from 1961 (8.54 per cent) to 2001 (47.10 per cent) for both males (13.04 per cent to 59.17 per cent) and females (2.89 per cent to 34.76 per cent) respectively.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The present paper aims to focus on the educational status of Muthuvan women belonging to the state of Kerala.

THE STUDY POPULATION

在研究中的部落被称为muthuvans谁是居住在德维可拉姆的chinnar野生动物避难所间在喀拉拉邦伊杜基区。的muthuvan定居点位于森林内部。到达muthuvan定居点太难因为种族隔离的性质在森林内部结算。必要的信息是从圣所即eruttalakudi,puthukudi三muthuvan村庄收集相关,和第五英里。这项研究产生的民族志的数据,通过二次来源,参与者观察,口头传达的记忆,个人的观察和访谈。

在2001次人口普查报告muthuvan部落人口杵与Wayanad区mudugar部落因此不给这些部落的人口。Muthuvan / mudugar部落的人口规模已达21000。是的muthuvans定居农业,培育柠檬草、鸭脚稗、玉米、豆类、红薯和其他盟军的蔬菜。它们的主要食物是树叶和蔬菜大米ragi。每个家庭都生产他们的食物。

The tribes under study are known as Muthuvans who are residing in the Chinnar Wild Life Sanctuary in Devikulam taluk of the Idukki district in Kerala. The Muthuvan settlements are located in the interior of the forest. To reach the Muthuvan settlements are too difficult because of the segregated nature of settlements in the interior forest. Necessary and relevant information was collected from three Muthuvan villages in the Sanctuary namely Eruttalakudi, Puthukudi, and Fifth Mile. The study generates ethnographic data through secondary sources, participant observation, orally conveyed memories, personal observations and interviews.

In the 2001 census report the population of Muthuvan tribe is clubbed with the Mudugar tribe of Wayanad district therefore does not give the correct population of both these tribes. The population size of Muthuvan/Mudugar tribe has been given as 21000. The Muthuvans are settled agriculturalists, cultivating lemon grass, ragi, maize, beans, sweet potato and other allied vegetables. Their chief food items are ragi and rice with leaves and vegetables. Each household produce their food.

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