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教育论文代写 TRIBAL WOMEN AND THEIR BASIC EDUCATION

LITERACY LEVEL OF TRIBES IN KERALA

在所有的五年计划中,优先考虑的是计划部落的教育发展。在预定的部落中教育传播缓慢的主要原因是他们居住的特殊性。大多数计划的部落都生活在远离教育机构的偏远地区。部落居民区中普遍存在的社会经济条件不利于研究。缺乏足够的教育机构在部落地区,他们的贫困等,减少有效的教育发展计划的部落之间。然而,喀拉拉邦民族的识字率(64.9分)远远领先于印度的部落地区(占比47.10),比全国总人口的识字率更高(64.8分)。

Muthuvans很可怜。许多学生因经济困难而在中小学中断学校。虽然国家和中央政府提供足够的财政援助,奖学金的形式,免费寄宿,住宿设施,提供课本和小学一日三餐中,助学金和宿舍设施,许多部落的孩子被教育。的muthuvans没有赚得自己教育自己。他们的文化环境和贫穷产生了他们在教育过程中的障碍。

In all the five year plans, priority was given to educational development of the Scheduled Tribes. The main reason for the very slow spread of education among the Scheduled Tribes is the peculiar nature of their habitation. Majority of the Scheduled Tribes are living in remote areas far away from educational institutions. The socio-economic condition prevailing in the tribal settlements are not conducive for studies. Lacks of sufficient educational institutions in tribal areas, their poverty etc, curtailed effective educational development among Scheduled Tribes. However, the literacy rate of the tribes in Kerala (64.9 per cent) is far ahead of the tribal areas in India (47.10 per cent) and even higher than the literacy rate of the total population of the country (64.8 per cent).

The Muthuvans are very poor. Many of the students discontinue schools at Primary and Middle school due to financial difficulties. Though the state and central government is providing enough financial assistance in the form of scholarship, free boarding, lodging facilities, provision to text books and mid-day meals in primary schools, stipend and hostel facilities, not many tribal children are attracted to education. The Muthuvans have not been earning much to educate themselves. Their cultural surrounding and poverty creates hindrances in the process of their education.

NON-FORMAL EDUCATION AMONG THE MUTHUVANS

Among the Muthuvans the dormitories were a kind of training institution for unmarried boys and girls. It is in this Chaavati (male dormitory) and Kumari Madam ( girl’s dormitory) that the traditions were passed from mouth to mouth, from older age group to youths and from youths to younger ones. The parents and the elders of the village initiate the child into different customs and traditions of their community and group.

The dormitory system exist as a kind of school where the Muthuvan youths of either sex learn how to perform their conjugal and social duties as also the lore of the clan. These Muthuvan dormitories are chiefly meant for imparting social education to the Muthuvan children. Muthuvan dormitory especially the Chaavati functions as if it is a club, a place for juvenile happiness, a non-formal school, and also a training center for children for making the Muthuvan boys as mature community members. At least up to the second quarter of the 20th century Muthuvan’s had both male and female dormitories (Krishna Iyer, 1939; Luiz, 1962) to train their youths to a useful and mature community member. But now the female dormitories (kumari madam- where ‘kumari’ indicate the young unmarried-girls, ‘madam’ indicates dwelling) had undergone a process of decay.

The Muthuvan dormitory (Chaavati) acts as a club for members to come together to share traditional experience. Their folk-tales, folk-songs and folk dances reveals lessons in different agricultural operations, hunting, wood cutting, honey collection, and in economic pursuits. These stories and anecdotes speak about sanctity of Muthuvan discipline, social approbation, social justice, law and order in their community. Chaavati enables them to get to know how to protect the community by learning the ways of defence against animal raids and enemy attacks, teaches them how to be useful for the community through co-operative labour, enables to know the community rituals and rites and also how to participate in them, provides an avenue to be community conscious and corporate in their feelings and actions thus making them responsible to the community. Members are also taught how to make fishing nets, traps, mats, ornaments etc., whereas in formal schools this kind of activities are absolutely not seen and home could not attract the Muthuvan children. From the dormitory, each Muthuvan acquire the knowledge about the flora and fauna, the forest track path, medicinal plants for various diseases and so on. In the Chaavati Muthuvan children are properly educated in order to face future eventualities of life and cope ages with the cultural requirements.

在muthuvans宿舍是一种未婚的男孩和女孩的培训机构。正是在这样的Chaavati(男生宿舍)和Kumari Madam(女生宿舍),传统被传为美谈,从年龄组的青年和青年年轻人。该村的父母和长辈把孩子的习俗和传统与他们的社区和团体的习俗和传统。

宿舍系统存在一种学校在任一性别的muthuvan青年学习如何执行也是氏族的传说他们婚姻的社会职责。这些muthuvan宿舍主要是为了孩子的muthuvan传授社会教育。muthuvan宿舍尤其是Chaavati的功能,如果它是一个俱乐部,一个少年的快乐的地方,一个非正规的学校,也是一个让Muthuvan男孩成熟的社区成员的儿童训练中心。至少到第二季度的第二十世纪muthuvan有男性和女性的宿舍(Krishna Iyer,1939;路易斯,1962)培养自己的年轻人一个有用的和成熟的社区成员。但现在的女生宿舍(Kumari夫人–“库玛丽”表明年轻的未婚女子,“夫人”表示住宅)经历了一个衰变的过程。

Muthuvan宿舍(chaavati)作为一个成员一起分享传统经验的俱乐部。他们的民间故事、民间歌谣和民间舞蹈在不同的农业经营、狩猎、伐木、蜂蜜收集和经济追求中显示出了教训。这些故事和轶事讲muthuvan纪律、神圣的社会认同,社会正义,在他们的社区治安。chaavati使他们了解如何通过学习对动物的袭击,敌人的攻击防御方法保护社区,教他们如何为社区通过合作劳动是有用的,可以知道社区的礼仪和仪式以及如何参与其中,提供了一个途径,是社区意识和企业在他们的感情和行动,从而使他们对公众负责。成员也教导如何使渔网、陷阱、垫、饰品等,而在正规学校这种活动是绝对没见过,家里不能吸引muthuvan儿童。从宿舍,每个muthuvan获得关于动植物的知识,森林的轨道,对各种疾病的药用植物等。在Chaavati Muthuvan的孩子正确教育面对生命未来可能发生的事情和应对时代与文化的要求。

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