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经济学论文代写 巴基斯坦经济变化史

 经济学论文代写  巴基斯坦经济变化史

在分区的时候,巴基斯坦有三千万人,人均收入近100美元,其中农业对经济产出贡献了近50%。在划分土地的时候,受到了巴基斯坦工业落后,工业产出的贡献是微不足道的,因为所有的产业都位于地区,受到印度。

据经济调查,2008声称拥有超过1亿7000万人口,中国的人均收入是1000美元,这几乎是十倍以上,这是在分区农业只占20%,全国40%的劳动力从事农业,国民收入的时间。工业和制造业贡献了近25%的收入。服务业是最具活力的部门,其国民收入占国民收入的50%,并拥有几乎相同比例的劳动力。

我们失败的根本原因是,我们没有利用我们的潜力,在最高水平。巴基斯坦经济的一项调查显示,在过去的60年中,该国的平均年增长率达到了5%,在20世纪60年代、80年代和2000年初的增长更为高。

在这段期间从2002年至2007年巴基斯坦的经济增长在7%年,贫困和失业率的降低,外部债务水平降低,国际金融市场很容易到达,因此巴基斯坦吸引了大量的外国直接投资。

在过去的三年里,巴基斯坦的经济遭受了严重的严重,主要是由于石油和商品价格上涨了2007,然后从独裁政权移交给一个民主政府。减少的情况下,政府采取一些艰难的决定,比如限制许多不相关的补贴和现金转移方案,介绍了为穷人。然而在这一过程中,国家积累了外部债务,提高了公共债务的GDP比率,牺牲了公共部门对基础设施和人类发展的投资,提高了整体利率结构。为了得到一个保持的情况,面临的挑战包括贸易赤字,越来越多的内部和外部债务,失业,通货膨胀,低效的税收征管和恶化的社会指标。

在11个月的经济绩效的关键指标显示,在运行的财政年缓慢复苏从记录慢年保持尽管全球金融危机和2008-09年大衰退。通胀下降,但在国际油价和食品价格飙升,政府过度借款从中央银行和未经制弊端像囤积和卡特尔制造保持通胀压力的活着。税收收入的增长在2010年但很可能低于1兆3800亿美元的目标。国债占国内生产总值和外债占GDP的比例仍然很高,从而增加了政府债务还本付息的支出。

At the time of partition Pakistan had thirty million people with per capita income of nearly $100, where agriculture contributed almost 50 % to the economic output. At the time of partition the land that came under Pakistan was industrially backward and so the contribution of industrial output was negligible, as all industries were located in territories that came under India.

According to economic survey, In 2008 it is claimed with population over 170 million people, the country’s per capita income was $1000 which is almost ten times more than it was at the time of partition where agriculture accounts for only 20% of our national income with 40 % of the country’s labor force engaged in agriculture. Industrial and manufacturing contributes almost 25 % of the income. Services sector has been the most dynamic sector that generates 50 % of national income and employs nearly the same proportion of the labor force.

The root cause of our failure is that we did not utilize our potential at the to maximum level. A survey of Pakistan’s economy depicts the country has achieved 5 % increase in the average annual growth rate in the last 60 years of its existence, with much higher growth in the 1960s, 1980s and early 2000.

In the period from 2002-07 Pakistan’s economy grew at 7 % annual and the rate of poverty and unemployment reduced, external debt levels lowered, international financial markets were easily reachable thus Pakistan attracted sizeable foreign direct investment.

Pakistan’s economy suffered severely during the last three years, mainly due to the oil and commodity price hike of 2007, then the handover to a democratic government from dictatorship. To curtail the situation, the administration took some tough decisions such as limiting many of the untargeted subsidies and introduced cash transfer scheme for the poor. However in this process the country has accumulated external debt that has raised the Public Debt – GDP ratio, sacrificed public sector investment for infrastructure and human development and raised overall interest rate structure. In order to get a hold of the situation the challenges include trade deficits, mounting internal and external debts, unemployment, inflation, inefficient tax collection and deteriorating social indicators.

Key indicators of economic performance in 11 months show a slow recovery in the running fiscal year from a record slow down in FY09 keeping despite the global financial crisis and Great Recession of 2008-09. Inflation declined but a spike in international fuel and food prices, excessive government borrowings from the central bank and unchecked business malpractices like hoarding and cartel-making kept inflationary pressures alive. Tax revenue grew in FY10 but is likely to fall short of the target of $1.38 trillion. The total national debt to GDP and external debt to GDP ratio remained high thus increasing the government expenses on debt servicing.

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