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当西方民主国家的稳定受到威胁时,马歇尔计划也适用于美国的原则。欧洲大部分地区在二战结束后满目疮痍。二战期间的6000万伤亡中,大部分是欧洲人。对欧洲农业的破坏导致了大陆许多地区的饥饿状况。受损的铁路和桥梁使他们在经济上陷于孤立。美国是唯一一个在二战中没有受到伤害的大国,因为我们比其他国家更晚参战。在这段时间里,美国经历了美国历史上最快的经济增长时期,因为美国工厂既支持我们的盟友,也支持我们自己的战争努力。经济的健康依赖于贸易。马歇尔计划(Marshall Plan)的援助主要由欧洲人用来购买美国的制成品和原材料,乔治马歇尔(George Marshall)认为,向欧洲提供经济稳定也会带来政治稳定。当提供援助时,欧洲国家拒绝了,因为他们自己已经组织了这个项目。因此,欧洲一体化的进程开始了,经济和政治基础为我们今天所知的稳定、繁荣和民主的欧洲奠定了基础。不同的地区需要不同的方法。马歇尔计划的一个重要教训是,它是专门设计的,以满足历史上某个特定时刻的关键需求。它之所以有效,是因为欧洲人能让它发挥作用。人们需要找到解决当前问题的现代方法。我们还需要提到,美国人和其他国家在五十年代和六十年代试图在其他类型的土壤中重新种植北约。我不认为这些方法很有效。这也是今天保持谨慎的另一个原因。


When the stability of fellow Western democracies was at stake, the Marshall Plan applied also to American principles. Much of Europe was devastated by the end of WWII. Most of the 60 million casualties among WWII were residents of Europe. Devastation of Europe’s agriculture led to conditions of starvation in many parts of the continents. Damaged railways and bridges left them economically isolated. The U.S. was the only major power whose infrastructure had not been harmed in WWII because we had entered the war later than other powers. During this time, the U.S. saw the fastest period of economic growth in the history of our nation due to American factories supporting both our allies and our own war effort. The health of the economy was reliant on trade. Aid from the Marshall Plan was mostly used by Europeans to purchase manufactured goods and raw materials from the U.S. George Marshall determined that providing economic stability to Europe would also provide political stability. When aid was offered, the European countries refused due to having already organized the program themselves. Thus, the process of European integration was started, and the economic and political foundations were laid for the stable, prosperous, and democratic Europe we know today. Different regions require different approaches. One great lesson of the Marshall Plan is that it was designed specifically to meet the critical needs of a particular place during a particular moment in history. It worked because Europeans were uniquely able to make it work. People need to find modern ways of solving current problems. We need to mention also that Americans and others tried to replant NATO in other types of soil during the fifties and sixties. I don’t think those approaches worked very well. This is another reason to be cautious today.


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