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美国佛罗里达国际大学论文代写:残疾和特殊教育的历史

优生学是一门研究和实践涉及人类的控制育种后代为了达到理想的特征(劳克林,1922)。优生学运动期间,许多残疾人多次消毒违背他们的意愿,没有他们的知识,经常在医院因其他原因(不分伯仲,2002)。灭菌大多发生在监狱和精神病院(劳克林,1922)。一些州通过法律要求绝育的残疾人的居民国家机构(b .和b .,1977)。印第安纳州是第一个国家制定消毒立法,这是在1907年(不分伯仲,2002)。到1934年,将近3000人经历了强制绝育。全国灭菌率相对较低,直到1927年最高法院的案件巴克诉钟。这个案件合法强制绝育的智力障碍的患者在弗吉尼亚的一个机构(巴克诉贝尔,274年美国274(1927)。绝育手术增加直到斯金纳诉俄克拉何马州的最高法院的情况下,在1942年否决了惩罚性的灭菌(斯金纳诉俄克拉何马州,316年美国316(1942)。公众舆论对灭菌过程成为二战后负,和强制绝育手术虽然在几个州持续下降直到1960年代(不分伯仲,2002)。几个州继续后灭菌法;然而他们很少使用。最后,超过64000个人在国家强制消毒灭菌程序在美国(http://www.bambooweb.com/articles/c/o/Compulsory_sterilization.html)。

美国佛罗里达国际大学论文代写:残疾和特殊教育的历史

Eugenics is the study and practice involving the controlled breeding of humans in order to achieve desirable traits in future generations (Laughlin, 1922). During the eugenics movement, many individuals with disabilities were sterilized against their will and many times without their knowledge; often while they were in the hospital for other reasons (Probert, 2002). Much sterilization took place in prisons and mental institutions (Laughlin, 1922). Some states passed laws requiring sterilization of individuals with disabilities who were residents of state institutions (Burgdorf & Burgdorf, 1977). Indiana was the first state to enact sterilization legislation, this was in 1907 (Probert, 2002). By the year 1934, nearly 3000 individuals had undergone compulsory sterilization. Sterilization rates across the country were relatively low until the 1927 Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell. This court case legitimized forced sterilization of mentally handicapped patients at an institution in Virginia (Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200 (1927). Sterilizations increased until Skinner v. Oklahoma, a Supreme Court case, ruled against punitive sterilization in 1942 (Skinner v. Oklahoma, 316 U.S. 535 (1942). Public opinion towards sterilization procedures became negative after World War II, and compulsory sterilizations decreased although continued in a few states until the early 1960s (Probert, 2002). Several states continued to have sterilization laws after this; however they were rarely used. In the end, over 64,000 individuals were sterilized under state compulsory sterilization programs in the United States (http://www.bambooweb.com/articles/c/o/Compulsory_sterilization.html).

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