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作者的研究表明,有几个细分父学术参与。父母是否有高或低教育水平,参与孩子的学校活动有时,这些因素都有重大影响的父母学术参与学生教育的性能的影响。还父学术参与不仅包含一些学校相关活动;在学校活动,例如做志愿者,联系学校教师,协助作业,参加PTA会议可能会或可能不会提高孩子的学术成果。作者喜欢凯伦Bogenschneider,蒂莫西·基斯和Monique Senechal试图解释justications这些活动,但有“缺乏协议的定义和测量inconsisitencies,使它困难比较发现在研究”(163年希尔和泰勒)。例如,南希·希尔和洛林•泰勒表示,家长志愿活动会影响学生的学术决策,而其他作者,“没有一致的证据表明,父母的参与有重大影响的学术成果”(格里菲斯36)。另一个挑战是一个特定的种族比其他更复杂。大多数研究人员认为,非洲裔美国人的父母更多地参与学校相关活动在家里而白人父母更涉及在学校比在家里。涉及真正的非裔美国人的父母可能不低于白种人的父母,而不是研究者的数据可能只考虑一个特定的地区,而不是分析整个普通人群。有一系列因素影响的学术参与但是理解这些障碍可以帮助解释父母积极参与和学生的学业成绩之间的关系。


The author’s findings demonstrate that there are several subdivisions to parent academic involvement. Whether parents have high or low education levels, participate in their child’s school events all the time or sometimes, these factors all have a significant influence in how parental academic involvement effects student’s educational performance. Also parent academic involvement does not only incorporate a few school-related activities; activities such as volunteering at school, contacting school instructors, helping with homework assignments, and attending PTA meetings may or may not improve a child’s academic outcome. Authors like Karen Bogenschneider, Timothy Keith, and Monique Sénéchal have attempt to explain the justications of these activities but there has been “lack of agreement about the definition and to measurement inconsisitencies, making it diffcult to compare findings across studies” (Hill and Taylor 163). For instance, Nancy Hill and Lorraine Taylor stated that parent volunteering can have an influence on students’ academic decisions, whereas other authors state that “there is no consistent evidence that parent involvement has a significant influence on academic outcomes”(Griffith 36). Another challenge is whether a particular race is more involved than the other. Most researchers assert that African American parents are more involved in school-related activities at home whereas Caucasian parents are more involved at school than at home. Genuinely African American parents may not be less involved than Caucasian parents; instead the researchers’ data might only take a particular district into account instead of analyzing the whole general population. There are a series of factors that affect parental academic involvement but understanding these barriers can help interpret the relationship between parent active participation and student’s academic performance.


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