The author's findings demonstrate that there are several subdivisions to parent academic involvement. Whether parents have high or low education levels, participate in their child's school events all the time or sometimes, these factors all have a significant influence in how parental academic involvement effects student's educational performance. Also parent academic involvement does not only incorporate a few school-related activities; activities such as volunteering at school, contacting school instructors, helping with homework assignments, and attending PTA meetings may or may not improve a child's academic outcome. Authors like Karen Bogenschneider, Timothy Keith, and Monique Sénéchal have attempt to explain the justications of these activities but there has been "lack of agreement about the definition and to measurement inconsisitencies, making it diffcult to compare findings across studies" (Hill and Taylor 163). For instance, Nancy Hill and Lorraine Taylor stated that parent volunteering can have an influence on students' academic decisions, whereas other authors state that "there is no consistent evidence that parent involvement has a significant influence on academic outcomes"(Griffith 36). Another challenge is whether a particular race is more involved than the other. Most researchers assert that African American parents are more involved in school-related activities at home whereas Caucasian parents are more involved at school than at home. Genuinely African American parents may not be less involved than Caucasian parents; instead the researchers' data might only take a particular district into account instead of analyzing the whole general population. There are a series of factors that affect parental academic involvement but understanding these barriers can help interpret the relationship between parent active participation and student's academic performance.