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学术参与不同类型的父母。在学校有许多前兆等志愿活动,联系学校老师,协助作业,参加学校会议可以影响一个学生的学术成果。例如,“家长志愿者在教室里学习老师的期望在课堂上为学生和家长志愿者监督老师的行为向她的孩子都参加了学校,但只有后者的父母可能会创建不信任,可能会影响儿童对学校和教师的态度”(163)。因为南希·希尔和洛林泰勒证明家长志愿者可以影响学生的学术决策,其他研究人员进行的案例研究来测试是否会得到相同的结果。据盖尔Zellman和吉尔·沃特曼“父母与孩子如何在预测孩子的学术成果更重要比他们在多大程度上参与学校”(379)。此外,Monique Senechal和乔·安妮勒费弗的一项研究调查了影响非正式和正式的文化活动对学生的学业成绩。Senechal和勒费弗承认非正式的活动,如“故事书阅读有关儿童接受语言的发展,而正式的教学活动,如父母的报告是有关儿童早期读写能力”(456)。)因此,Senechal和勒费弗认为,给孩子读书或教孩子如何发音单词是不可或缺的孩子的学业表现。然而,在他的研究中,詹姆斯·格里菲斯认为他不知道如果父母学术参与”之前或之后学生成绩.


Different types of parental academic involvement. There are many precursors such as volunteering at school, contacting school instructors, helping with homework assignments, and attending school meetings which can influence the academic outcome of a student. For instance, “a parent who volunteers in the classroom to learn about the teacher’s expectations for students and a parent who volunteers in the classroom to monitor the teacher’s behavior towards her child are both involved in the school, but only the latter parent is likely to create distrust that may impact the children’s attitudes toward the school and the teacher” (163). Since Nancy Hill and Lorraine Taylor attest that parent volunteering can have an influence on students’ academic decisions, other researchers have conducted case studies to test if they would obtain the same results. According to Gail Zellman and Jill Waterman “how parents interact with their children is more important in predicting child academic outcomes than the extent to which to which they are involved at school” (379).In addition, a study by Monique Senechal and Jo-Anne Lefevre examined the impact that informal and formal literacy activities had on student’s academic performance. Senechal and Lefevre acknowledge that informal activities such as “storybook reading was related to children’s receptive language development, whereas formal activities such as parents’ reports of teaching were related to children’s early literacy skills” (456). ) Thus, Senechal and Lefevre concluded that reading to a child or teaching a child how to pronounce words was integral to the child’s academic performance. Nevertheless, in his research, James Griffith concluded that he does not know if parental academic involvement “preceded or followed student performance


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