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近年来教育话语挑战客观主义的观点,越来越认识到现实的方式有很多种理解。而建构主义作家所描述的各种形式的建构主义,都认识到学习者的积极作用在解释世界(Larochelle Bednarz,1998)。建构主义竞赛客观主义的观点,知识反映了本体论现实(出处同上),而不是提出我们的建筑和世界观是不稳定的,而是处于不断变化的状态我们先前的经验基础。这些变化意味着学习,支持理解我们从来没有惰性,而是总是学习和交互(凯利,1970)。杜威的著作(1916),维果斯基(1965),布鲁纳(1966)和皮亚杰(1926)提出,学生学习积极,形成新的理解基于先验知识,而这些观点看待教师的角色从“指南”的圣人(梅森,1998年,页)。杜威(1916)认为学习情况代表了经验(s)的环境影响学习者,学习者之间的交互发生和环境。因此,知识是建立在活跃的经验。


In recent years educational discourse has challenged the objectivist view, with an increasing understanding that there are many ways of understanding reality. Whilst constructivist writers have described various forms of constructivism, all recognise the active role which the learner plays in interpreting the world (Larochelle and Bednarz, 1998). Constructivism contests objectivism’s view that knowledge reflects ontological reality (Ibid.), and instead proposes that our constructions and world views are not stable, but rather are in a state of flux as we build upon previous experiences. These changes signify learning, and support the understanding that we are never inert, but instead are always learning and interacting (Kelly, 1970). The writings of Dewey (1916), Vygotsky (1965), Bruner (1966) and Piaget (1926) have all proposed that students learn actively and form new understandings based upon prior knowledge, and these perspectives view the role of the instructor changing from “a sage to a guide” (Mason, 1998, p.4). Dewey (1916) believed that learning situations represent the experience(s) of the environment which affect the learner, and that interaction occurs between the learner and the environment. Therefore knowledge is predicated upon active experience.


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