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在比较皮亚杰和维果茨基,皮亚杰看到互动主要是作为一种机制,促进同化和住宿的个人。然而,维果茨基在学习和发展的基础上发展了自己的思想,这是直接从社会交往中产生的,这意味着个体的认知发展是与他人交往的直接结果。语言的作用是维果茨基理论的中心,它具有三种不同的角色在发展”(埃根和保根,2007,第46页)。第一个角色是让学习者获得知识。其次,语言为学习者提供了认知工具,使人们能够思考周围的环境和解决问题。语言扮演的第三个角色是帮助学习者对自己的思维进行调节和反思。据维果茨基,“学习发生时,人们获得具体的理解,”托马斯,32(3),656。在回顾了三种不同的动机理论研究的基础上,行为理论、人本主义理论和认知理论研究了Charles Maslow需要层次理论的人文观的发展。看看马斯洛的两步过程,第一步是缺乏需要,包括生存,安全,归属和自尊。成长需要第二步,包括智力成果,麻醉的欣赏,和自我实现(埃根和保根,2007,p.303)。研究者认为,如果工作环境或课堂环境能将皮亚杰、维果茨基和马斯洛的理论结合到一个基本的概念中,那么就可以对人类的身体和认知发展有一个最完美的认识。


In comparing Piaget with Vygotsky, Piaget saw interaction primarily as a mechanism for promoting assimilation and accommodation in individuals. Whereas, Vygotsky developed his ideas based on learning and development, which arises directly from social interactions, which means individuals’ cognitive developments are a direct result of interactions with other people. “The role of language is central to Vygotsky’s theory, and it plays three different roles in development” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p.46). The first role is giving learners access to knowledge. Second, language providing the learners with cognitive tools that allows humans to think about their surroundings and resolve problems. The third role that language plays is helping the learner with regulation and reflection of his or her own thinking. According to Vygotsky, “learning occurs when people acquire specific understanding,” Thomas, 32(3), 656). In reviewing the research of the three different theories of motivation–behavioral theories humanistic theories and cognitive theories–the researcher has to study the development of the humanistic views of Charles Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Looking at Maslow’s two-step processes, the first step is Deficiency needs, which includes survival, safety, belonging, and self-esteem. The second step, Growth needs, includes intellectual achievements, anesthetic appreciation, and self-actualization (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p.303). This researcher believes that if the work environment or the classroom environment could combine Piaget, Vygotsky and Maslow’s theories in to one basic idea, one would have the closest thing to a perfect understanding of human physical and cognitive development.


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