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美国教育学代写作业:考试成绩和问责制

随着对效率、考试成绩和问责制的要求,许多学前教育项目采用并加强了正规的教学,并将玩耍作为一种娱乐时间,而不是一种学习媒介。俄勒冈州一个全国性的调查发送到所有与一级教师、幼儿园教师和校长Hitz和赖特(1998)发现,百分之六十四的幼儿园教师,校长的百分之六十一,和百分之七十二的一年级老师报道,正式的学术教学在幼儿园更普遍比10到20年前。在这种情况下,创造性表达可能被认为没有认知发展那么重要。创造力可能被认为与思维和解决问题的能力无关。相反,教师和管理人员可能采用了学术指导和其他正式做法,尽管他们大多数人认为这种做法在发展上是不适当的。最后一种情况意味着教育工作者失去或缺乏学术自由,从而违反民主原则。幼儿教育工作者对他们的教育项目中使用的教学方式表示关注。幼儿园前和幼儿园课堂上的实践反映了一种环境主义者-行为主义者的观点,尽管老师们报告说他们有其他的观点。哈奇和弗里曼(1988)通过对教师实践的研究发现,三分之二的幼儿教师实施的项目与他们关于儿童学习的理念相冲突。儿童早期教育专家长期以来一直主张,针对幼儿的教育项目应该提供社会、情感、身体、认知和创造性技能的发展,但上述研究结果不再反映这一点。简而言之,研究人员的建议和教师的实践之间存在差距。

美国教育学代写作业:考试成绩和问责制

With the demand for effectiveness, test achievement scores, and accountability, many preschool programs have adopted and reinforced formal instruction, and have used play as a recreational period rather than a learning medium. In an Oregon state-wide survey sent to all kindergarten teachers and principals with first-grade teachers, Hitz and Wright (1998) found that sixty-four percent of kindergarten teachers, sixty-one percent of principals, and seventy-two percent of first-grade teachers reported that formal academic instruction was more prevalent in kindergarten than it was 10 to 20 years ago. In this scenario, creative expression may be considered not as important as cognitive development. Creativity may be viewed as irrelevant to the development of thinking and problem solving. Conversely, it is possible that teachers and administrators have adopted academic instruction and other formal practices, even though most of them considered such developmentally inappropriate. This last scenario implies the loss or lack of academic freedom among educators, thus contradicting democratic principles.Early childhood educators have shown concern with the type of instruction used in their education programs. Practices used in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten classes reflected an environmentalist-behaviorist view, even though teachers reported having other views. From a study of teacher practice, Hatch and Freeman (1988) found that two-thirds of early childhood teachers were implementing programs in conflict with their philosophies concerning children’s learning. Early childhood experts have long asserted that programs for young children should provide for the development of social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and creative skills, but the abovementioned findings do not reflect this anymore. In short, there is a gap between researchers’ recommendations and teachers’ practices.

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