With the demand for effectiveness, test achievement scores, and accountability, many preschool programs have adopted and reinforced formal instruction, and have used play as a recreational period rather than a learning medium. In an Oregon state-wide survey sent to all kindergarten teachers and principals with first-grade teachers, Hitz and Wright (1998) found that sixty-four percent of kindergarten teachers, sixty-one percent of principals, and seventy-two percent of first-grade teachers reported that formal academic instruction was more prevalent in kindergarten than it was 10 to 20 years ago. In this scenario, creative expression may be considered not as important as cognitive development. Creativity may be viewed as irrelevant to the development of thinking and problem solving. Conversely, it is possible that teachers and administrators have adopted academic instruction and other formal practices, even though most of them considered such developmentally inappropriate. This last scenario implies the loss or lack of academic freedom among educators, thus contradicting democratic principles.Early childhood educators have shown concern with the type of instruction used in their education programs. Practices used in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten classes reflected an environmentalist-behaviorist view, even though teachers reported having other views. From a study of teacher practice, Hatch and Freeman (1988) found that two-thirds of early childhood teachers were implementing programs in conflict with their philosophies concerning children’s learning. Early childhood experts have long asserted that programs for young children should provide for the development of social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and creative skills, but the abovementioned findings do not reflect this anymore. In short, there is a gap between researchers’ recommendations and teachers’ practices.