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美国肯塔基论文代写:管理

托马斯(2003)认为管理作为重要的艺术。因此,管理实践是不可接受的情况下的形式规则和程序可能来自严格的理论和实验研究。他进一步指出,不能建立有效的经理人,他们是天生的。他们有天生的品质,使他们能够得到的结果在工作场所,它是不可能的描述或测量,天生的品质。因为托马斯(2003)说,这是不可能的他们的技能转移到他人,虽然可以通过经验在工作中学习。希普曼(1972)中引用托马斯(1993)指出,在自然科学的科学家试图发明医学他们没有压力,但是在社会科学管理者总是有压力在他们身上产生的结果和生产以明确的形式。托马斯(2003)进一步指出,医学科学也非常好今天比以前医学科学的发展,如果管理是社会科学,那么为什么不给完美的结果自然科学,例如医学专家做研究和发现新的治疗方法,医生都使用相同的方法和治疗病人,以同样的方式为什么不像自然科学所有经理找到解决方案。他进一步指出,科学包括承诺广义知识可以使用普遍而艺术视图声明这是一个未实现的目标。自然科学是有效的,因为自然不能受到人类作为人类没有能力去改变自然的事情。然而,很明显,管理艺术和管理科学是完全反对对方。

美国肯塔基论文代写:管理

Thomas (2003) believed management as an essential art. As such, management practice is unacceptable to situations in the form of rules and procedures which might be derived from rigorous theorization and experimental research. He further states that effective managers cannot be made, they are born. They have innate qualities which enable them to ‘get result’ at the workplace, and it is not possible to describe or measure that innate qualities. Because of that Thomas (2003) said it is impossible to transfer their skills to others, although it is possible to learn through experience at work. Shipman (1972) cited in Thomas (1993) states that in natural science scientist try to invent medicine they do not have pressure upon them, but in social science managers always have pressure upon them to produce result and produce in an unambiguous form. Thomas (2003) further states that medical science does an enormously better job today than it did before the development of medical science, if management is social science then why does it not give perfect result as natural science, for example medical experts who do research and find new ways of treatment, all doctors use the same method and cure patients, in the same way why do not all managers find solution like natural science. He further states that science involves a commitment to generalized knowledge which can be use universally whereas art view declares this to be an unrealized aim. A natural science is effective because nature cannot be influenced by human beings as human beings do not have the power to change natural things. However, it is clear that management as art and management as science is entirely opposed to each other.

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