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美国留学生论文代写:资本主义生产方式

马克思、恩格斯从理论上认为,资本主义生产方式的根本矛盾将产生严重后果,包括经济危机圈的出现、无产阶级和资产阶级的分化、向资本主义主导的新生产方式的转变。首先,马克思、恩格斯指出,资本主义生产方式由于其根本矛盾,对经济危机圈的形成起了重要作用。这场危机的第一阶段以资本家对资源和劳动力剩余价值的疯狂侵占而闻名,资本家的注意力集中在追求利润和生产力上。在这一阶段,资本主义生产方式在技术创新和大规模生产方面得到了显著的投资。第二阶段是由于资本家对利润的疯狂追求,导致市场恶性竞争的激增和难以置信的生产过剩。因此,“市场静止”从生产过剩中产生。根据马克思,“过剩的危机”将出现在资本主义经济的生产过剩(第709页)。为了应对生产过剩和恶性竞争造成的市场混乱,政府通过调节市场活动和控制经济生产来干预市场,导致市场上出现了几家垄断企业的显著垄断。其结果是,市场上出现了越来越大的不平等,这使经济危机进一步复杂化。同时,马克思、恩格斯也把资本主义生产方式的根本矛盾与不断变化的阶级构成联系起来,揭示了无产阶级和资产阶级将在根本矛盾中形成两个阶级。正如马克思所指出的,“以资本主义生产方式为基础的雇佣劳动者、资本家和土地所有者构成了现代社会的三大阶级”(马克思1867/1978:441)。资本主义生产方式以经济剥削和工人非人化为特征。资本家对社会产品的不受管制的个人占有导致了一个由资产阶级控制的不断扩大的阶级的形成,资产阶级拥有产品的材料和资本。在资本主义日益侵占和剥削下,工人与劳动产品的距离越来越远,工人逐渐成为无产阶级,他们只拥有自己的劳动。根据马克思的理论,工人被转化为“工薪族”,他们拥有自己的劳动力,这些劳动力被作为“商品”“卖给资本”(第204页)。随着资本主义生产方式的迅速发展和扩大,无产阶级和资产阶级之间的差距将越来越大,资产阶级受到的剥削越来越多,资产阶级主要是占有劳动者的剩余价值。具体地说,资产阶级日益富裕,无产阶级由于资本主义生产方式所带来的不受管制的侵占和剥削而日益贫困。

美国留学生论文代写:资本主义生产方式

Theoretically, Marx and Engels believe that the fundamental contradiction of the capitalist mode of production will have serious consequences, including the emergence of the economic crisis circle, the polarizing of the proletarians and the bourgeoisies, and the shift to a capitalist-dominated new mode of production. First, Marx and Engels note that the capitalist mode of production contributes greatly to the emergence of an economic crisis circle due to its fundamental contradiction, which includes three major stages. The first stage of the crisis is noted for rampant appropriation of resources and surplus value of laborers by the capitalists, who are concentrated on pursuing profits and productivity. During this stage, the capitalist mode production sees remarkable investments in technological innovations and mass production. The second stage witnesses the surge of vicious competition and incredible overproduction in the market due to rampant pursuits of profits by the capitalists. Consequently, “market standstills” emerge out of the overproduction. According to Marx, “a crisis of plethora” will emerge out of the overproduction in the capitalist economy (p. 709). In response to the market disorder caused by overproduction and vicious competition, governments intervene in the market by regulating market activities and control economic production, which results in the emergence of notable domination of several monopolies in the market. As a result, widening inequalities emerge in the market, which further complicates the economic crisis. Meanwhile, Marx and Engels also associate the fundamental contradiction of the capitalist mode of production with the changing class composition, revealing that proletarians and bourgeoisies will emerge as two classes out of the fundamental contradiction. As noted by Marx, “wage labourers, capitalists and landowners constitute [the] three big classes of modern society based upon the capitalist mode of production” (Marx 1867/1978:441). The capitalist mode of production is noted for economic exploitation and dehumanization of workers into wage labor. The unregulated individual appropriation of social products by the capitalists leads to the formation of an expanding class dominated by the bourgeoise who own the product materials and capital. Under the increased appropriation and exploitation of the capitalists, workers are increasingly alienated from their products of labor and transformed into proletarians who own only their labor. According to Marx, workers are transformed into “wage-workers”, who own their labor power that is sold as “a commodity” “to capital” (p. 204). With the rapid development and expansion of the capitalist mode of production, there will be a widening gap between the proletarians and the bourgeoisies, as the former are under increased exploitation of the latter who are mainly concerned with appropriating the surplus value of laborers. Specifically, the bourgeoisies are becoming increasing richer, while the proletarians are increasingly impoverished due to the unregulated appropriation and exploitation introduced by the capitalist mode of production.

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