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美国留学生作业代写:感官体验

实证主义是一种认识论认知,它认为只有建立在感官体验和积极验证基础上的知识才是真正的知识。更简单地说,实证主义认为所有真实的知识都是科学的,所有的事物最终都是可以测量的。实证主义产生于物理学、化学和生物学等自然科学方法的成功。这种动力来自科学在理解和解决自然界问题方面取得的巨大成功。实证主义的本体论是实在论;一种可理解的现实,被认为是存在的,由不可改变的自然规律和机制驱动。关于“事物存在的方式”的知识通常以时间和上下文无关的概括形式总结,其中一些以因果律的形式总结。原则上,研究可以集中于事情的“真实”状态。范式的基本立场被认为是还原主义和确定性的。实证主义的认识论是二元论和客观主义的认识论;意思是研究者与被调查者“客体”假设为独立的实体,研究者能够在不影响或不受影响的情况下研究客体。当任何一个方向的影响(对有效性的威胁)被确认,甚至被怀疑时,就会采取各种策略来减少或消除它。调查就像通过一面单向的镜子进行。只要严格遵守规定的程序,价值观偏见就不会影响结果。事实上,可复制的发现是“真实的”。

美国留学生作业代写:感官体验

Positivism is an epistemological perception which states that only knowledge which is based on sensory experience and positive verification is authentic knowledge. More simply worded, positivism is the view that all true knowledge is scientific, and that all things are ultimately measureable.Positivism emerged from the success of the scientific approach in natural sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology. The impetus for this came from the overwhelming success of science in understanding and solving problems in the natural world.The ontology of positivism is realism; an apprehend able reality that is assumed to exist, driven by immutable natural laws and mechanisms. Knowledge of the “ways things are” is conventionally summarised in the form of time- and context-free generalizations, some of which take the form of cause-effect laws. Research can, in principle, converge on the “true” state of affairs. The basic posture of the paradigm is argued to be both reductionist and deterministic.The epistemology of positivism is dualist and objectivist; meaning the investigator and the investigated “object” are assumed to be independent entities, and the investigator to be capable of studying the object without influencing it or being influenced by it. When influence in either direction (threats to validity) is recognised, or even suspected, various strategies are followed to reduce or eliminate it. Inquiry takes place as through a one-way mirror. Values biases are prevented from influencing outcomes, so long as the prescribed procedures are rigorously followed. Replicable findings are, in fact, “true”.

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