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Goldman continues his paper by discussing knowledge based on memory. Memory can be considered a causal process because a current belief could be caused and therefore traced back to an earlier cause. Knowing a fact at one time and then knowing it again at another is not necessarily knowledge based on memory as a causal connection would have to be included as an essential component in memory. Like perception, the causal connection of memory is used by Goldman to solve the Gettier problem through the addition of an extra element in the Tripartite Theory. Goldman goes on further to discuss knowledge based on inference through the lava case. S finds lava on the countryside and infers that there was an eruption. But in actual fact, someone has placed lava there in order to make it look like there had been a real eruption, unaware of the actual volcano. Goldman states that S doesn’t really know that there was an eruption because it is not causally connected to any beliefs about there being an eruption. So, inferential knowledge requires a connection through some sort of causal chain or as Goldman puts it: “when someone bases his belief of one proposition on his belief of a set of other propositions, then his belief of the latter propositions can be considered a cause of his belief of the former proposition.


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