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美国留学生作业代写:因果关系的知识

戈德曼通过讨论基于记忆的知识继续他的论文。记忆可以被认为是一个因果过程,因为当前的信念可以被引起,因此可以追溯到更早的原因。一次知道一个事实,另一次又知道它,不一定是基于记忆的知识,因为作为因果关系的知识必须包含在记忆中,作为一个基本组成部分。就像感知一样,戈德曼利用记忆的因果关系,通过在三部理论中增加一个额外的元素来解决Gettier问题。高盛通过lava案例进一步讨论了基于推断的知识。他在乡下发现了熔岩,推断那里有火山爆发。但事实上,有人把熔岩放在那里,是为了让它看起来像是真的爆发了,而没有意识到真正的火山。高盛表示,S并不真正知道火山爆发是因为它与任何关于火山爆发的信念没有因果关系。所以,推论知识需要通过某种因果链连接或高盛所言:“当有人基地他信念的命题在他一系列其他命题,然后他的信念的命题可以被认为是前者主张的他的信念的一个原因。

美国留学生作业代写:因果关系的知识

Goldman continues his paper by discussing knowledge based on memory. Memory can be considered a causal process because a current belief could be caused and therefore traced back to an earlier cause. Knowing a fact at one time and then knowing it again at another is not necessarily knowledge based on memory as a causal connection would have to be included as an essential component in memory. Like perception, the causal connection of memory is used by Goldman to solve the Gettier problem through the addition of an extra element in the Tripartite Theory. Goldman goes on further to discuss knowledge based on inference through the lava case. S finds lava on the countryside and infers that there was an eruption. But in actual fact, someone has placed lava there in order to make it look like there had been a real eruption, unaware of the actual volcano. Goldman states that S doesn’t really know that there was an eruption because it is not causally connected to any beliefs about there being an eruption. So, inferential knowledge requires a connection through some sort of causal chain or as Goldman puts it: “when someone bases his belief of one proposition on his belief of a set of other propositions, then his belief of the latter propositions can be considered a cause of his belief of the former proposition.

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