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美国留学生作业代写:纸的发明

早在公元7世纪伊斯兰教到来之前,中国就发明了纸,佛教僧侣和传教士在东亚、南亚和中亚各地传播,但伊朗的纸的起源却笼罩在传说之中。没有确凿的证据表明,萨珊人知道或使用过中国纸,尽管文献中反复出现关于中国纸使用的未经证实的描述。同样,纸的介绍伊朗和伊斯兰土地是反复(但错误)归因于中国造纸的传说捕获的塔拉斯战役之后(Ṭarāz)的134/751。然而这个迷人的故事,首先由ʿAbd-al-Malek MoḥammadṮaʿālebi (d。429/1038;第140页)不太可能是真的(钱,第295-96页和n. e.):到8世纪,中国的纸通常完全由韧皮制成。在没有种植桑树的干旱的中亚地区,造纸工人大概已经用亚麻、棉花或诸如旧破布和绳子之类的废料完美地生产了纸。因此,破布,而不是韧皮,纸将是几个世纪以来在伊斯兰国家生产的纸的特点。此外,没有历史证据表明,中国造纸企业有必要参与技术转让。一方面,在伊斯兰教之前的中亚地区,纸已经广为人知(据推测是制造出来的);另一方面,穆斯林历史学家倾向于把历史发展归因于个别行动者的负责任的行为。无论如何,随着伊斯兰教的到来,以前不为人知的纸张的使用和制造,迅速地从中亚传到了伊朗,进而传遍了整个伊斯兰国家。8世纪末,它在巴格达制造,9世纪末,它在埃及制造,10世纪末,它被用于伊比利亚半岛,改变了伊斯兰文明的崛起

美国留学生作业代写:纸的发明

Paper was invented in China in the centuries before the Christian era and carried by Buddhist monks and missionaries throughout East, South, and Central Asia in the period before the coming of Islam in the 7th century CE, but the origins of paper in Iran are shrouded in legend. There is no hard evidence to suggest that the Sasanians either knew of or used Chinese paper, despite unsubstantiated accounts of its use that have been repeated in the literature. Similarly, the introduction of paper to Iran and the Islamic lands is repeatedly (but erroneously) ascribed to the purported capture of Chinese papermakers following the battle of Talas (Ṭarāz) in 134/751. Yet this charming story, first reported by ʿAbd-al-Malek Moḥammad Ṯaʿālebi (d. 429/1038; p. 140) is unlikely to be true (Tsien, pp. 295-96 and n. e): By the 8th century, Chinese paper was normally made entirely from bast (i.e., plant) fiber, such as the inner bark of the paper-mulberry, while papermakers in arid Central Asia, where paper-mulberry was not cultivated, had presumably perfected the production of paper from flax, cotton, or such waste materials as old rags and ropes. Consequently, rag, not bast, paper would be characteristic of papers produced in the Islamic lands for centuries. Furthermore, there is no historical evidence suggesting that Chinese papermakers needed to have been involved in the technology transfer. On the one hand, paper was already widely known (and presumably manufactured) in Central Asia in the pre-Islamic period; on the other hand, Muslim historians tended to ascribe historical developments to the responsible acts of individual actors. In any event, with the coming of Islam, the use and manufacture of paper, which had been previously unknown, quickly spread from Central Asia to Iran and thence throughout the Islamic lands. By the end of the 8th century, it was manufactured in Baghdad, by the end of the 9th century it was made in Egypt, and by the end of the 10th century it was used in the Iberian Peninsula, transforming the emerging Islamic civilization in its wake

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