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马歇尔计划是美国战后重建的主要计划,为西欧国家建立更坚实的基础,1947年6月5日,重建计划建立。美国对欧洲危机的反应有四个原因。首先,欧洲是美国商品的巨大市场;如果没有一个繁荣的欧洲,美国可能会遭受严重的经济萧条。第二,如果没有美国的帮助,西欧可能会用社会主义或共产主义的方法重建他们的国家,而美国领导人认为这是不可取的。另一个原因是由于美国开始明白,西欧出现打开来影响我们的主要对手,苏联最后,二战的欧洲担心敌人只会减少如果德国的集成到一个更大的欧洲重建德国西部作为一个缓冲进一步苏联的扩张。当时,美国国会批准了价值为290亿美元的西欧国家的131亿美元。美国经济合作署(Economic Cooperation Administration)将70%的资金用于购买美国商品,因为冷战时期的紧张局势在1949年加剧,而英国、法国、意大利和西德等国的数量最多。这些资金越来越多地用于军事支出,而不是工业重建。1948年4月,该计划已经实施了4年。70亿美元用于向加入欧洲经济合作组织(OEEC)的欧洲国家提供经济和技术援助。到1952年,西德独立,重新武装,经济繁荣,西欧工业生产比战前水平高出35%。在计划完成的时候,每个参与国的经济都已大大超过战前的水平。


The Marshall Plan was the primary plan after WWII of the United States for rebuilding in creating a stronger foundation for the countries of Western Europe, June 5, 1947, the reconstructive plan was established. The United States responded to the crisis in Europe for four reasons. First, Europe had been a great market for American goods; without a prosperous Europe, the United States might have suffered a severe economic depression. Second, Western Europe might have used socialist or Communist methods to rebuild their country without the help of American aid, in which the United States leader considered that undesirable. Another reason was due to the United States was beginning to understand that Western Europe appeared to open to influence by our principal rival, the U.S.S.R. Finally, European fears of the World War II foe would lessen only if the German’s were integrated into a larger Europe by rebuilding Western Germany as a buffer against further Soviet expansion. Then the U.S. congress gave $13.1 billion of the $29 billion Western Europe asked for. Seventy percent that was distributed by the Economic Cooperation Administration was spent for goods in the U.S. As cold war tensions heightened in 1949 the largest amounts went in order of Great Britain, France, Italy, and West Germany. The funds increasingly went into military expenditures rather than industrial rebuilding. In April 1948, the plan had now been in operation for four years. 7 billion in U.S. dollars were given to aid in economic and technical assistance to European countries that had joined in the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC). By 1952, West Germany was independent, rearmed, and economically booming, West European industrial production stood 35 percent above prewar levels. The economy of every participating state had grown well past pre-war levels by the time the plan had come to completion.


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