According to Nancy Hill and Lorraine Taylor parental academic involvement decreases as students proceed to junior high school because parents may feel that they cannot help their children with more advanced and intricate homework problems and because their children want more independence. Another aspect they pointed out was that parental school involvement decreased because parents that are employed have less time to actively participate in school events due to their hectic work schedules and other predicaments. Furthermore, Rena Harold and Jacquelynne Eccles stress that parental school involvement decreases as children get older, because junior high schools do not promote parent academic involvement. In contrast to Hill, Taylor, Harold, and Eccles definite assurance that parental support decreases as student move to higher grade levels, Timothy Keith as well as Patricia B. Keith, Kimberly J.Quirk, Jodi Sperduto, Stephanie Santillo, and Stacy Killings confirm that parents who are actively involved in their children's early educational development will continue to be involved throughout their academic career. In fact, parents who support and motivate their children throughout their educational development can influence their child to continue to pursue higher education.For the most part, the researchers suggested that as student progress academically that the student's parents will either look for ways to help them with their schoolwork or stop participating in their educational development. Also parents' perception can cause a variance in how much parents participate in school related activities. A gap in the authors' research is that they didn't not state whether or not ethic and cultural backgrounds has an effect on parents' active participation at school.