残疾学生参与高风险评估一直是一个有争议的话题。演示AYP的关键部件包括所有95%的在校学生，包括那些有特殊需要，参与评估。在许多情况下，特殊需要的学生，由于认知障碍，没有被教导的课程，高风险测试的基础。在这些情况下，课程是不适合他们的表现水平，或在符合他们的个性化教育计划，因此，这些学生被教导的替代课程的运作水平，不会通过高风险评估。此外，这些学生往往有自尊问题，由于他们每天在学校面临的斗争的结果。这群学生可能被标记为“失败”，并可能遭受更大的自尊的问题，由于不符合他们必须满足为了通过测试得到的标准。 少数民族学生的成绩直接受考试文化方面的影响。根据Madaus，罗素，希金斯，家庭背景影响学生的课堂行为和学生的方式查看和交互测试和文化（61）。”这对我们来说是重要的[ ]承认试验是观察和接近我们的社会是由阶级和文化[ ]”（Madaus、罗素和希金斯61）。为了成功，这些学生应该适应多数文化的方式。从很小的时候开始，这些高风险测试的结果，无论好坏，都将决定这个学生在整个教育过程中如何被感知和对待。当文化差异导致少数民族学生的差距，这些学生可以面对终身的标签和低期望。
Participation in high-stakes assessments by students with disabilities has long been a controversial topic. A key component of demonstrating AYP includes having 95% of all enrolled students, including those with special needs, participate in the assessments. In many cases the special needs students, due to cognitive deficits, are not being taught the curriculum on which the high-stakes tests are based. In these cases the curriculum was not appropriate for their performance level or in compliance with their Individualized Education Plan; therefore, these students were taught an alternative curriculum on their level of functioning and will not pass the high-stakes assessments. Also, these students often have self-esteem issues as a result of the struggles they face every day in school. This group of students may be labeled as "failures", and may suffer even greater self-esteem issues as a result of not meeting the unobtainable standards they must meet in order to pass these tests.The performances of students from minorities are directly affected by the cultural aspects of testing. According to Madaus, Russell, and Higgins, family and cultural backgrounds influence students' behavior in the classroom and the way students view and interact with tests (61). "It is important [for us] to recognize that the way testing is viewed and approached in our society is [determined by both class and culture]" (Madaus, Russell, and Higgins 61). In order to succeed, these students are expected to adapt to the ways of the majority culture. Beginning at a very young age, the results of these high-stakes tests, whether good or bad, will determine how this student will be perceived and treated throughout the course of their education. When cultural differences cause a gap for the minority students, these students can face a lifetime of labeling and low expectations.