As shown in Appendix B, the measurement instrument utilized in this study was divided into three parts. Part A consists of items that represent both orientations of lean production, namely socially-oriented lean production and technically-oriented lean production constructs. Socially-oriented lean production construct was represented by four variables namely supplier focus (3 items), customer focus (3 items), employee focus (3 items) and continuous improvement (3 items). Meanwhile technically-oriented lean production construct was also represented by four variables namely technology (3 items), flow system (3 items), just-in time (3 items) and quality at source (3 items).
Part B of the questionnaire consisted of the measurement of performance which covered both operational performance and business performance. Operational performance construct was represented by three variables namely quality performance (3 items), delivery performance (3 items), and operational efficiency (3 items). Meanwhile business performance construct was represented by also three variables namely return on sales (single item), profitability (single item) and return on investment (single item). All items in Part A and B were measured by using 7 point Likert’s-scale to capture agreement or disagreement of the respondents where 1 represent strongly disagree and 7 indicate strongly agree with the statement.