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美国匹兹堡大学论文代写:维京人和爱尔兰人

在爱尔兰,银蹄的分布格局给我们提供了关于维京人和爱尔兰人之间关系的最多信息。然而,在中部的中部地区,没有Coinless的hoards分布相当均匀。在爱尔兰的中部和东海岸,人们发现了混合的海鸭和硬币。大多数的银蹄都是在爱尔兰地区存放的,而这些地区并没有被维京人控制,这可以作为证据,尽管许多发现是维京人的风格,但实际上他们是爱尔兰人的所有权。我们不能确定这些财富是如何获得的,但在当代爱尔兰领土上发现了这些猪,这表明了贸易的证据以及在爱尔兰人和维京人之间接受礼物的过程。维京爱尔兰不断变化的经济,可以从它所包含的东西的稳步转变中看到。从9世纪晚期到10世纪初,从黄金经济(在没有硬币的蹄)到一个进口和使用硬币的经济体,都有一个平稳的转变。金币在硬币被埋之前就已经存在了,但是许多硬币被熔化到银的状态,以便用于其他物品。硬币开始被保留,这种过渡由混合的蹄所代表,它们可以与10世纪初的斯堪的纳维亚城镇的基础相联系。从10世纪中期开始,硬币和混合的气藏都急剧下降,而硬币则变得更加突出。到11世纪初,黄金的转变已经完成。

美国匹兹堡大学论文代写:维京人和爱尔兰人

The distribution patterns of silver hoards in Ireland give us the most information about the relations between the Vikings and the Irish. Coinless hoards are fairly evenly spread, however with a concentration in the central midlands. Mixed hoards and coin hoards are found predominantly in the midlands and east coast of Ireland. The majority of silver hoards were deposited in areas of Ireland that were not under control by the Vikings which can be taken as evidence that although many of the finds were Viking in style, they were in fact in the ownership of the native Irish. We cannot be certain how the wealth was acquired but the fact that the hoards were found in contemporary native Irish territory suggests evidence of trade and the process of giving receiving gifts between the Irish and the Vikings. The changing economy of Viking Ireland can be seen by the steady transformation of what was contained in hoards. From the late 9th century to the early 10th century there is a steady transition from a bullion economy (seen in the coinless hoards) to an economy which imported and used coins. Coins were in existence before the burial of coin hoards, however many were melted to their silver state in order to be used for other objects. Coins began being retained, and this transition is represented by the mixed hoards which can be associated with the foundation of the Scandinavian towns during the beginning of the 10th century. From the mid of the 10th century, coinless and mixed hoards decline dramatically whilst coin hoards become more prominent. By the beginning of the 11th century the transformation from bullion is completed.

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