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虽然两位领导者的领导风格不同,但他们都有自己的性格特点,这使得他们成为了一个伟大的领导者。首先,基于工具知识,特征理论也称特征发现理论,甚至在近年来还在争论,因为领导者是天生的或后天形成的。虽然世界上有成千上万的成功的领导者,但他们都有自己的特点,这些特点可以概括为六个领导特点,包括雄心和精力,渴望领导,诚实和正直,自信,聪明和工作相关的知识。因此,工具知识通过六个领导特质表明“这些特质是一个领导者的显著的个人特征”(Robbins & Decenzo, 2005: p. 256)。然而,并不是每个领导者都具备所有的个人特质,而不是其中的一些。大量的例子告诉我们,具有不同特质的领导者也可以在各个领域取得成功。例如,杰夫•贝佐斯(Jeff Bezos)和丰田章男(Akio Toyoda)有着完全不同的性格和个人特点,但他们都在商界获得了巨大成功。然而,与工具性知识相反,概念性知识认为,很难确定一个人是天生就具有某种特质,还是他们可能只是通过生活经验获得了这种能力,并从中学习。此外,不同文化的国家需要不同特点的领导者。因此,每个国家需要的领导者都需要有不同的特质。例如,来自西方国家的人和来自东方国家的人会有不同的文化或做事的方式(Hofstede, n.d.)。因此,不同的领导风格需要在不同的国家实施,如果特定的国家害怕不确定性,对混乱有较高的规避水平,如中国、日本等,专制风格可能更合适。因此,对于所有的领导者来说,并没有一套被普遍接受的特质。每个人都是不同的,他们的能力和技能,知识和经验也会不同,他们会被不同的人接受,欣赏他们的特点。


Although both leaders practiced different leadership style, they have their own personality traits that made them a great leader. First of all, based on the instrumental knowledge, the traits theory also call traits- spotting is argued even in recent years, for the reason of that leader is nature born or make. Although, there are thousands of successful leaders existing in the world, all of them have their own traits which can be summarize as six leadership traits including ambition and energy, desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self- confidence, intelligence and job- relevant knowledge. Hence, instrumental knowledge indicated that “the traits are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader” through six leadership traits (Robbins & Decenzo, 2005: p. 256). However, not every leader has all of the personal traits instead of maybe some of them. And lots of examples tell us that leader with different traits also can obtain successful in every area. For instance, Jeff Bezos and Akio Toyoda have total different characteristics and personal traits, but both of them acquired big successful in the business world.However, in contrast with the instrumental knowledge, the conceptual knowledge holds that it is difficult to identify whether any people is naturally born with trait, or they might just gain those ability through their life experience and learn from it. Besides, different countries which have different culture will need leader with different characteristic. Thus, every leader which is required in different country will need to have different trait. For example, people from the Western countries and people from the Eastern country will have different culture or ways of doing things (Hofstede, n. d.). Thus, different leadership style need to be implement in different countries, if that particular countries are afraid of uncertainty and have a high level of avoidance for confusion, such as China, Japan and others, the Autocratic style might be more appropriate. Therefore, there is no one universally accepted set of traits for all leaders. Every single individual are different, their ability and skills, knowledge and experience will be different as well and they will be accepted in the mind of different people which appreciate their traits.


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