Assignment help

美国社会学论文代写:遵循社会规范

遵循社会规范的观点是极端的。人们并不是天生就接受一切而不去质疑或改进。然而,法哈德似乎认为,人们可以根据自己的自由意志做出自己的选择和决定,这是不可能的。正如社区主义者所说,人们受到社会的影响,而这种影响在很大程度上影响着人们相信他们是出于自己的自由意志做出的选择。正如他指出的那样,人们可以有选择的自由,但这不会凭空产生。尽管人们可能认为他们做的是一个纯粹客观的决定,但总有一些主观性会发挥作用。社群主义者从保守思想中汲取传统的重要性;然而,人们没有义务遵循这些传统。他们的存在是为了团结人民,创造社会归属感。此外,它们影响人们做决定的方式和他们基本上如何生活,因为一些传统不能从人们的生活中消除。这借鉴了罗尔斯对无知之幕的运用。这是一个假想的面纱,人们处于一个原始的位置,他们对定义他们是谁的[18]一无所知。人们应该忽视这些理想和价值观,集中精力保持中立和客观,以便做出有利于所有人的决定。这些决定应该是正确的,因为人们是通过理性和无私的思考来做出这些决定的。它不仅是一个困难的实践概念,而且是有缺陷的。人们不能想当然地认为,他们对自己的生活一无所知,忘记了与之相关的一切。他们的社会和理想会在某个时候发挥作用,并影响他们的决定。仅仅因为一个理性的决定就是正确的决定,这种假设是错误的。人们不可能完全理性,他们总是会有一些事情影响他们的思维方式,不管它看起来多么微不足道。因此,社群主义强调社会在个人生活中的重要性,因为社会塑造人,社会中的许多事物很容易对人产生影响。因此,罗尔斯的无知之幕正义理论是不准确的,因为,正如社群主义者所说,“正义的标准必须在特定社会的生活形式和传统中找到,因此可以在不同的环境中有所不同。”[19]此外,社群主义者认为,决策的“道德作用”总是存在于“一种特定的传统和实践结构的背景下,体现在一个社群的生活中”。

美国社会学论文代写:遵循社会规范

arguments for following the norms of the society are extreme. People are not just programmed to accept everything without questioning it or improving it. However, Fahad seems to argue that people can make their own choices and decisions based on their own free will, which is unlikely. As communitarians argue, people are influenced by their societies, and this influence plays greatly onto the choices that people believe they are making out of their own free will. People can have a freedom of choice, as he points out, however this will not emerge out of nothing. Even though people might think that they are making a purely objective decision, there is always some subjectivity that will come into play. Communitarians draw from the conservative thought the importance of traditions; however, people are not obliged to follow these traditions. They exist to unify the people and create a sense of belonging in the society. Furthermore, they affect the way people make decisions and how they essentially live their lives, as some traditions cannot be eliminated from people’s lives. This draws on Rawls’s use of the veil of ignorance. This is an imaginary veil where people are in an original position where they know nothing about anything that defines who they are [18] . People are supposed to ignore these ideals and values and focus on remaining neutral and objective in order to make decisions that would benefit all the people. These decisions are supposedly right in that people reach them through rational and selfless thinking. Besides it being a difficult practical concept, it is also flawed. People cannot just assume that they know nothing about their lives and forget everything they are connected to. Their society and ideals will come into play at some point and it will influence their decisions. It is false to assume that a rational decision is a right decision just because it is rational. People cannot be fully rational, they will always have something affecting the way they think, no matter how insignificant it might seem. Therefore, communitarianism stresses on the importance of the society in individuals’ lives because the society shapes people and many things within the society can easily have an impact on them. Rawls’s theory of justice through the veil of ignorance is thus inaccurate, because, as communitarians argue, “the standards of justice must be found in forms of life and traditions of particular societies and hence can vary from context to context.” [19] Furthermore, communitarians see the “moral agency” of making decisions always existing “within the context of a particular structure of traditions and practices, manifested in the life of a community.”

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注