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There have been many successful applications of the CSR approach in the private business sector for protecting the environment and reducing carbon emissions. Royal Dutch Shell, which is an international oil and gas company, has also been actively engaged in CSR activities in the past decades, as the company gradually puts more emphasis on the sustainability of its business and the environment. The company has been slowly replacing coal with renewable energy, such as wind power, which generates over 1,000 megawatts of capacity. In addition, the company is also investing in the lowest-carbon biofuel, which is done via a joint venture with Cosan (Shell, 2018). The current CSR efforts by Royal Dutch Shell is exactly consistent with the goal of the Paris Agreement. Though the company has its main businesses in the coal and oil sector, which is a main source of carbon emissions that may lead to climate change, it is also embracing a more environmental friendly business model.Another important case of CSR comes from global leader in the automobile manufacturing industry, BMW Group. Traditionally, cars run on fossil fuel, which would produce greenhouse gases that may lead to climate change. The company is also actively seeking long-term sustainability and carbon reduction as well. Under the guidance of the CSR efforts, BMW’s Corporate Average Fuel Consumption (CAFC) in 2016 was 6.69 litres of petrol per 100 kilometres, which is top in many major automobile markets in the world. The measures taken by the company could also reflect its dedication in following its CSR targets, which is also consistent with the goals in the Paris Agreement.


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