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虽然希尔et al .,英格伦et al .,与Bogenschneider同意父母的教育水平较高的更多的参与孩子的教育,英格伦,希尔和泰勒认为,有几个因素会妨碍父母的能力学术参与孩子的教育发展。希尔等人研究的差距,心理问题会影响一个学生的学习能力,因此导致一些学生比其他人有更高的考试和课程成绩。行为问题也可以防止一些学生获取更高的阶级等级。 父母在学校积极参与。父母在学校积极参与“可能导致教育的沟通价值的增加或改变在家的父母参与的方式和学校”(163)。例如,在这本书的第一章,主渠道作用链接,更高年级的学生家长联系学校通常父母与孩子在年级水平较低。Rena哈罗德和Jacquelynne艾克尔斯表示,这样做的原因是“接近青春期的高度意识也激起愤恨的严重性学校和成就,导致父母寻求新的方法来帮助他们的孩子”(15)。哈罗德·艾克尔斯也国家家长沟通的增加的另一个可能的解释是,父母可能会觉得他们不接收相同数量的信息从学校也因此当他们的孩子们在小学”要求的更多信息将他们带回了他们已经习惯了在小学水平年”


Although, Hill et al., Englund et al., and Bogenschneider concur that parents’ with higher levels of education are more involved in their children’s schooling, Englund, Hill and Taylor believe that there are several factors that can hinder parents’ ability to be academically involved in their children’s educational development. A gap in Hill et al. research was that psychological issues can affect a students’ ability to learn therefore resulting in some students having higher test and course grades than others. Also behavioral problems can prevent some students for acquiring higher class grades.Parents’ active participation at school. Parents’ active participation at school “may lead to an increase in the communicated value of education or change the way parents become involved at home and school” (163). For example, in the first chapter of the book, Family-school links, the parents of students in higher grade levels contacted the school more often than parents with children in lower grade levels. Rena Harold and Jacquelynne Eccles stated that the reason for this is “the heightened awareness of approaching adolescence also arouses a heightened sense of the seriousness of school and achievement, leading parents to seek new ways to help their children” (15). Harold and Eccles also state another probable explanation for the increase in parent communication is that parents may feel they are not receiving the same amount of information from the school as did when their children were in elementary school therefore “asking for more information to bring them back up to the level they had been accustomed to during the elementary school years”


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