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维果斯基(1965)超越聚焦在个人、解释和构造意义的现实,相反认为个人学习是建立在社会文化背景下,通过语言/对话和象征性的介导。维果斯基、学习者的社会交互,包括那些与教师和其他学习者认知发展至关重要,导致Vygotskian理论通常被称为社会建构论。维果斯基的最近发展区(ZPD)描述了如何参与另一个(老师或同伴)使学习者能够改进他们的想法或性能,使其更有效,这个想法被Bruner(1966)进一步发展中脚手架的概念。布鲁纳(出处同上)认为教育是一个个人发现的过程,与认知成长发生作为学生进步通过三个学习阶段:法律制定的代表性和象征性。为了产生理解,学生必须穿过阶段先后,产生新的概念和思想在一个发现的过程,学习,或者,另一个的协助下,通过引导发现。诺尔斯et al。(1998)认为,这一发现应该发生在现实生活中为了能够真正有效和认为,非正式成人学习。诺尔斯最出名的是他的建议的成人学习理论将审查。


Vygotsky (1965) moved beyond focussing upon the individual, construing and constructing meanings of reality, instead seeing individual learning as grounded in the socio-cultural context, and symbolically mediated through language/dialogue. For Vygotsky, the learner’s social interactions, including those with teachers and other learners, are critically important to cognitive development, resulting in Vygotskian theory often being referred to as social constructivism. Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) describes how engagement with another (teacher or peer) enables learners to refine their thinking or performance and make it more effective; this idea was taken further by Bruner (1966) in developing the concept of scaffolding. Bruner (Ibid.) views education as a process of personal discovery, with cognitive growth occurring as students progress through three learning stages: enactive, iconic and symbolic. In order to generate understanding, students must move through the stages successively, generating new concepts and ideas in a process of discovery learning, or, with the assistance of another, through guided discovery. Knowles et al. (1998) contend that this discovery should take place in real-life situations in order to be truly effective and argue that much adult learning is informal. Knowles is best known for his proposal of a theory of adult learning which will now be reviewed.


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