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美国生物homework代写 单克隆抗体

最初,单克隆抗体被认为是一种生物学工具,在病理诊断和实验室研究中具有重要的应用价值。由于结合的特异性,它们被用于识别血细胞、其他组织的表型以及其他诊断/成像技术,如免疫组织化学、流式细胞术等。(Weiner 2015)早期的研究表明,单克隆抗体(mAbs)可以通过杂交瘤技术(一种获得诺贝尔和平奖的技术)轻松而有效地生产出来,使它们可以应用到前面提到的研究中。30年前,单抗还被认为是一种可能的癌症治疗方法。起初,小鼠单克隆抗体被作为一种癌症治疗的试验,研究结果令人失望。小鼠单克隆抗体,来源于小鼠,特别是实验室小鼠。由于单克隆抗体与人类免疫系统的相容性较差,半衰期较短,因此给人注射单克隆抗体时出现了问题。具体来说,单克隆抗体招募宿主细胞效应功能的能力较差,对肿瘤部位的穿透能力也较差。然而,当小鼠单克隆抗体能够发挥这些功能时,却发现其对肿瘤细胞产生的细胞毒性效果较差,并且产生的复合物能刺激最小的过敏反应,从而完全消除过敏性休克。这种不良的相互作用和过敏反应被称为人类抗鼠抗体(HAMA)反应。尽管有这些挫折,信息表明单抗治疗是可能的。

美国生物homework代写 单克隆抗体

Initially, mAbs were recognized as biological tools and were essential for applications in pathological diagnosis and laboratory investigation. Due to specificity in binding, they were used to identify the phenotype of blood cells, and other tissues as well as other diagnostic/imaging techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and various other. (Weiner 2015) Early research showed that monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could be easily and efficiently produced through hybridoma technology (a technology that won the Nobel peace prize), allowing them to be applied to the research mentioned earlier. Only 30 years ago were mAb’s proposed as a possible therapeutic for cancer. Initially, murine mAbs were trialled as a cancer treatment, and the results from the study were disappointing. Murine mAbs, are derived from mice, specifically laboratory mice. This led to troubles when administering murine mAbs to humans, due to the suboptimal compatibility of the mAb with the human immune system and low half-life. Specifically, the mAbs had a poor ability to recruit host cell effector functions, as well as poor penetration in tumour sites. Though when able to access those functions it was found that murine mAbs were poor at producing a cytotoxic effect on tumour cells, and generation of complexes that stimulated minimal allergic reactions to full out the anaphylactic shock. This poor interaction and an allergic reaction are known as the human anti-murine antibody (HAMA) response. Despite the setbacks, information was elucidated that showed mAb therapy is possible.

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