父母教育程度。研究表明，父母的教育水平是决定学生教育成果的重要指标。它不仅解释学生的学术水平，而且还决定了他们的教育愿望。Karen Bogenscheider的实证研究了，父母的教育水平对学生学业成功的影响。Bogenscheider的研究结果确认，“父亲和母亲的受教育程度较高的人更多地参与在教育他们的后代比父亲和母亲中等或低水平的教育”（724）。她指出，具有较高教育水平的父母有时间帮助孩子完成学业，因此，他们比低学历家庭的孩子获得更高的考试成绩。虽然，Bogenscheider证实，父母的受教育水平较高的是更多地参与孩子的教育，Michelle Englund，Amy E. Luckner，Byron Engeland，gloriawhaley，否则英格伦等人的状态。肯定来自高学历家庭的孩子在学业上取得成功，但来自父母教育程度较低的家庭的学生有更大的教育和职业抱负。此外，英格伦等人。提到，从低学历家庭的学生往往模仿他们的父母的教育成就，因为他们不明白的真正价值和教育的好处。同时，Nancy Hill和Lorraine Taylor断言，“从低社会经济背景的家长面临更多障碍的参与，包括非工作时间，资源缺乏，交通问题，和应力由于居住在不利的社区”（162）。因此，“低学历的家长可能不会参与他们的孩子的教育方式，提高或改变学校的行为或表现，但他们的参与可能传达他们的期望，他们的青少年未来的成功和向上流动。
Parents' level of education. Research has shown that parents' level of education is an important predictor in determining students' educational outcome. It does not only interpret a student's level of academic attainment but also determines their educational aspirations. A study by Karen Bogenscheider empirically analyzes the effects that parents' level of education has on students' school success. Bogenscheider's findings affirm that "mothers and fathers with higher levels of education were significantly more involved in the schooling of their offspring than mothers and fathers with moderate or low levels of education" (724). She noted that parents with higher educational levels had time to help their child with their schoolwork; therefore, they earned higher test scores than children from low educated families. Although, Bogenscheider confirm that parents' with higher levels of education are more involved in their children's schooling, Michelle Englund, Amy E. Luckner, GloriaWhaley, and Byron Engeland state otherwise.Englund et al. affirm that children from higher educated families do succeed academically but students from families with lower parental education levels had greater educational and career aspirations. In addition, Englund et al. mentions that students from low educated families tend to mimic their parents' education achievements because they do not understand the true value and benefits of an education. In conjunction, Nancy Hill and Lorraine Taylor assert that "parents from lower socioeconomic backgrounds face many more barriers to involvement, including nonflexible work schedules, lack of resources, transportation problems, and stress due to residing in disadvantage neighborhoods" (162). Thus, "low educated parents may not become involved in their children's schooling in ways that enhance or change school behavior or performance but their involvement may communicate their expectations for their adolescents' future success and upward mobility"