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吉尔伯特和特鲁德尔(2001)提供的经验证据表明,教练员使用反射作为一种学习如何教练。吉尔伯特和特鲁德尔(2001)开发的一六成分模型体验学习反思的基础上,包括:(一)教练的问题,(B)的作用,框架,(C)(D)问题设置、策略生成、(E)试验,和(D)的评价。根据模型,教练问题是触发反射反应,导致体验学习是必不可少的。这些问题为教练员提供了反思和参与体验式学习过程的机会。对触发反射包括教练的问题的例子:运动员的行为,运动员的表现,教练型,父母的影响,和团队组织(吉尔伯特等人,2001,吉尔伯特等人,2001),教练的角色框架,和/或教练方法。角色框架作为过滤器的构造和解决问题(Gilbert & Trudel,印刷中)。一个问题的识别,以及为什么它是一个问题的决定,被称为问题设置。当教练确定一个棘手的情况是一个教练的问题,需要加以解决,它触发反射对话,用于产生新的教练策略。根据以前的战略进行实验确定如何有效的策略是解决问题。在实验结束时,教练要么退出反射对话,要么解决问题,要么返回策略生成阶段.


Gilbert and Trudel (2001) provided empirical evidence that coaches use reflection as a method of learning how to coach. Gilbert and Trudel (2001) developed a six component model of experiential learning based on reflection that includes: (a) coaching issues, (b) role frames, (c) issue setting, (d) strategy generation, (e) experimentation, and (d) evaluation. According to the model a coaching issue is essential to trigger reflective response which leads to experiential learn. These issues provide the coach with opportunities to reflect and engage in the experiential learning process. Examples of coaching issues that trigger reflection include: athlete behavior, athlete performance, coach profile, parental influence, and team organization (Gilbert et al., 2001a, Gilbert et al., 2001b), the coach’s role frame, and/or approach to coaching. Role frames act as filters through which problems are constructed and addressed (Gilbert & Trudel, in press). The identification of an issue, and the decision why it is an issue, is referred to as issue setting. When a coach determines that a troublesome situation is a coaching issue which needs to be addressed, it triggers a reflective conversation used to generate new coaching strategies. Conducting experiments based on previous strategies determines how effective the strategy is for resolving an issue. On termination of the experiment the coach either exits the reflective conversation, because the issue is solved, or returns to the strategy generation stage


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