One of the most important aspects of learning is a motivating classroom environment, and developing classroom groups that positively work together toward a common goal are becoming more a norm as educators recognize the value of group dynamics in the learning process. Robert Gardner's work in L2 motivation research suggests that there is a 'social psychological phase' of learning in the ELL student. "Because the learning of an L2 is influenced by a plethora of social factors, including attitudes, cultural stereotypes and geopolitical considerations, learning an L2 is a considerably distinct process from that of other school subjects." (Kubanyiova, 2006) Consider the historical proverbs of "many hands making light work" and the more current acronym of TEAM (Together Everyone Achieves More). "The class group can have a significant impact on the effectiveness of learning." (Dornyei, 2003) As a matter of fact, in a "good" group, the L2 classroom can turn out to be such a pleasant and inspiring environment that the time spent there is a constant source of success and satisfaction for teachers and learners alike. And even if someone's commitment should flag, his or her peers are likely to 'pull' the person along by providing the necessary motivation to persist." (Dornyei, 2003) When implemented well, cooperative learning is a viable solution to many of the social and psychological factors that English Language Learners face in the regular classroom.