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建构主义、行为主义相反,关注学生的先天试图理解世界作为学习过程的基础,并在这一过程中认识到个人使用他们之前的经验。教育家的责任转移,因此,从知识转移的“机械”,成为“助产士”理解的出生(1996年冯·Glaserfield)负责创建丰富的学习环境,提供有意义的经历的机会。在考虑建构主义理论在远程教育的作用,反观et al。(1995)提出四项原则为建构主义环境,建设“学习者参与知识通过协作活动嵌入学习以一种有意义的上下文和通过反思已经学到的东西与别人交谈”(第3)。原则建议网上远程学习环境应该由一个聚焦于:上下文,包括一个真实的元素来避免“连锁”排序;建设,允许通过清晰度和反射活跃的知识建设;协作、发生在学习者支持的开发和评价的信念和假设,和对话,协商解决问题。


Constructivism, in contrast to behaviourism, focuses on student’s innate attempts to make sense of the world as the basis for the learning process, and recognises that individuals use their prior experiences in this process. The onus on the educator shifts, therefore, from being the ‘mechanic’ of knowledge transfer, to becoming the ‘midwife’ in understanding’s birth (von Glaserfield, 1996) with responsibility for creating rich learning environments which provide the opportunity for meaningful experiences. In considering the role of constructivist theory in distance learning, Jonassen et al. (1995) propose four principles for constructivist environments that “engage learners in knowledge construction through collaborative activities that embed learning in a meaningful context and through reflection on what has been learned through conversation with others” (p.5). The principles propose that online distance learning environments should be built with a focus upon: Context, including a real-world element to avoid ‘chain-like’ sequencing; Construction, allowing active knowledge construction through articulation and reflection; Collaboration, occurring amongst learners to support the development and evaluation of beliefs and hypotheses, and Conversation, for the negotiation of solutions to problems.


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