Constructivism, in contrast to behaviourism, focuses on student's innate attempts to make sense of the world as the basis for the learning process, and recognises that individuals use their prior experiences in this process. The onus on the educator shifts, therefore, from being the 'mechanic' of knowledge transfer, to becoming the 'midwife' in understanding's birth (von Glaserfield, 1996) with responsibility for creating rich learning environments which provide the opportunity for meaningful experiences. In considering the role of constructivist theory in distance learning, Jonassen et al. (1995) propose four principles for constructivist environments that "engage learners in knowledge construction through collaborative activities that embed learning in a meaningful context and through reflection on what has been learned through conversation with others" (p.5). The principles propose that online distance learning environments should be built with a focus upon: Context, including a real-world element to avoid 'chain-like' sequencing; Construction, allowing active knowledge construction through articulation and reflection; Collaboration, occurring amongst learners to support the development and evaluation of beliefs and hypotheses, and Conversation, for the negotiation of solutions to problems.