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间接的措施,如访谈和/或问卷调查经常被用来作为一种评价方法。以往的研究主要集中在(一)教练员的执教能力的信念(Malete和Feltz,2000)(B)教练员运用特定的心理技能训练(古尔德et al.,1987)和(c)的教练对课程的长处和短处(mccullick等人。,2005)。这些程序的感知有用性根据交付的课程内容(吉尔伯特等人,1999)和教练配置文件(垫子等,,吉尔伯特等人,2006)。 埃里克森等。(2008)确定教练教育计划的好处,包括(a)增加知觉教练效能(b)更好地促进社会发展和运动员的成长和(c)通过使用压力管理和应对策略的教练倦怠率下降。此外,教练有机会与他人互动,使教练网络的建立。教练课程包含大量的信息,解决教练的理论元素,如技术,战术和体育科学的元素。然而,这些课程并没有发展什么琼斯(2000)认为是必要的,智力和实践的组成部分,重要的是有意义的和解决问题的决定。相反,理论和实践都教独立呈现高水平任务作为一个常规导致要求从业者的认知和人际交往方面(琼斯,2000,potrac et al.,2000)。这种方法是有问题的,因为教练配备了必要的技能来处理与教练和实践的复杂过程中的许多挑战和任务(垫子等,2003)。缓冲区等,(2003)提出了利用教练培训课程的指导和批判性反思作为一种手段,提高学习的实践经验的教练。


Indirect measures such as interviews and/or questionnaires are frequently used as a method of evaluation. Previous literature primarily focused on (a) the coaches’ belief in their coaching ability (Malete and Feltz, 2000) (b) the coaches’ use of particular psychological training skills (Gould et al., 1987) and (c) the coaches’ perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the course (McCullick et al., 2005). The perceived usefulness of these programs varies according to the delivery of the course content (Gilbert et al., 1999) and coaching profiles (Cushion et al., 2003, Gilbert et al., 2006).Erickson et al. (2008) identified the benefits of coaching education programs to include (a) increased perceived coaching efficacy (b) better facilitation of social development and growth of athletes and (c) decreased rate of coach burnout through the use of stress management and coping strategies. In addition, coaches get the chance to interact with others allowing for the establishment of coaching networks. Coaching Courses contain large amounts of information addressing the theory element of coaching such as technique, tactics and elements of sport science. However these courses do not develop what Jones (2000) deems as ‘the necessary, intellectual and practical components that are important to making meaningful and problem solving decisions’. Instead theory and practice are taught independently presenting high level tasks as a routine resulting in a deskilled practitioner in terms of cognitive and human interaction (Jones, 2000, Potrac et al., 2000). This approach is problematic as coaches are ill-equipped with the necessary skills to deal with the many challenges and tasks associated with the complex process of coaching and practice (Cushion et al., 2003). Cushion et al., (2003) propose the utilization of mentoring and critical reflection in coach education programs as a means of enhancing learning in the practical experience of coaching.


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