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Results for searching ‘reverse culture shock’, seemed to revolve mainly around sojourners’ studies, especially exchange or overseas students (Butcher, 2002; Eckenrode, 2009; Griffith, Winstanley, & Gabriel, 2005; Howell, 2002; Sussman, 2000). Sojourners are people who temporarily leave their native place with a view to returning there, for study, work or refuge (Sussman, 2000). The reference to ‘Reversed culture shock’ among tourists is scarce and relies on sojourner studies (See Brown, 2009; Hottola, 2004), justified by the shortage of fieldwork on tourists and similarities between overseas students and tourists.

Medical literature seemed to dominate ‘Trauma’ searching results, altering my search to emotional/psychological/existential trauma. Here I found relevant Stolorow’s (2007; 2009; 2011) work that sees trauma as contextual and existential, stressing the element of existential anxiety; Thompson and Walsh (2010) who perceive trauma as a psychosocial phenomenon; Pitchford (2009) who deals with the existential anxiety that is the basis of trauma; van-Deurzen (2009) who writes about spiritual crisis. These writers lead also to the notion of post-traumatic growth which incorporates existentialism, and to the work of Decker (1993) and Wortmann, Park and Edmondson (2011). The only link between trauma or reverse culture shock and returning backpackers, was found in Edelson’s (2011, June 3) new paper article, which inspired this paper.


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