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Other theorists, John Dewey and Maria Montessori, have also played a significant role in child-centred learning theory development. Despite the similarities in their belief that some guidance is important for children to help them develop their intelligence, they both have different perspectives about the role of children’s freedom in education and the teacher’s role in the classroom. Dewey believes that democratic schooling is based on child-centeredness where learning means experiencing. Being a progressivist, he believes in the development of the ability in children to function well in the larger democratic society and attain personal fulfilment. Dewey emphasises that the construction of children’s freedom of intelligence via observation is more important than their freedom of will. Therefore, he summons up the teachers to act as a representative of the children’s interests as a whole. They should create self-control in children, which will assist the teacher to understand the aim of education.Montessori, by contrast, sees teachers’ authority in the support they give to the children rather than in their “dignity”. She believes that orderly environment and appropriate materials will promote children’s development. Teachers, therefore, should prepare motives and inspire children to develop without any direct instruction.


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