Nursing Assignment 代写: 医护人员职业压力存在的问题
Nursing Assignment 代写: 医护人员职业压力存在的问题
Occupational stress is a recognized problem in health care workers.1 Nursing has been identified as an occupation that has high levels of stress.2 In an investigation conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the USA, nurses were found to be one of the occupations that had a higher than expected incidence of stress-related health disorders.3 It was found that job stress brought about hazardous impacts not only on nurses' health but also their abilities to cope with job demands. This will seriously impair the provision of quality care and the efficacy of health services delivery.3,4. In a study of job stress among hospital nurses, it was found that 27% of the subjects experienced psycho physiological symptoms of stress, and 38% reported consulting a doctor in the past 6 months. It has also been found that different nurses experience job stress different.3 4(Josef, 2003). In recent years there has been broad discussion on the nature of stressors experienced by members of "high risk" occupations and professions, for instance nursing and emergency workers, whose role is to support others through trau-matic scenarios.5 Recognition is growing that health care professionals, especially emergency department staff, are at risk for experiencing critical incidents.7 Emergency Department nurses are in a position that is expected to deal with additional stressors. These include unexpected numbers of pa-tients at any time, unexpected rapid changes in patients' situations, and response to distressing or traumatic incidents such as sudden death, patient violence, inappropriate attendees, and physical or verbal abuse on a daily basis. Emergency nursing is a highly stressful profession.7
Most people can cope with stress for short periods but Chronic stress produces prolonged changes in the physiological state.8 Effectiveness of coping behaviors depends on the situation in which they are used. Some coping behaviors may work well for some situations but not for others.9 In general terms, coping are a strategy that helps people reduce stress and solve problems8. Folkman et al. (1986) define coping as "the person's cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage the internal and external demands in the person-environment transaction.9 People differ in the coping strategies that they adopt for dealing with stressful incidents.10 Individual's coping strategies should be viewed and assessed within their particular social, cultural, and situational context.11. In a study by Li and Lambert (2008) on 102 intensive care nurses in china by a self-report questionnaires indicated that most workplace stressors was overload and most commonly used coping strategy was planning.(12). In another study by Burgess and Wallymahed (2010) they found that certain personality trait such as openness and extraversion were associated with less perceived stress from the patient and relative in Intensive care unit nurses.13
Knowing what emergency workers do to cope and survive extreme incidents may help us understand and assist those who are more at risk of traumatic reactions .14.
The issues of job stress, coping, and burnout among nurses are of universal concern to all managers and administrators in the area of health care.2 Therefore, the specific aim of the study was to investigate the sources of occupational stress and coping strategies among nurses who are working in emergency department in Shiraz-Iran. Thus the knowledge obtained would be useful in the formulation of recommendations to promote the health of these nurses and thereby improve the quality of care provision in emergency department.