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Psychology Essay 代写:不同领域的认知心理学

Psychology Essay 代写 :不同领域的认知心理学

认知心理学的研究与它的理论基础有着密切的联系,如果它是归纳或演绎的,在这两种情况下,它是与理论联系在一起的。但这等于笼统如果认知心理学为基础研究,取得了一些应用(Clancey,1993)。此外,它也是众所周知的,一些认知心理学家的工作在私营部门,教育部门和在几个行业。从心理学的早期到现在,在这些应用中已经表达了浓厚的兴趣。应用研究主要的心理学家已应用特别是与人的发展”的相关问题(杜菲和Jonassen,1992)。认知心理学主要是非常基本的性质,在现实世界中不适用需要消除的研究一般的信念。它被成功地应用于域像法医心理学、教育,以及其他市场营销和广告(克拉克和Paivio,1991)。
认知心理学有几个法医应用,其中包括欺骗检测和目击者识别。雨果芒斯特伯格对心理学和法律的一些开创性的工作。他写的这本书,“站在证人席上“特进行了研究论证和记忆的目击者感知的随意性。他认为,科学心理学可以是非常有帮助的法律界(德夫林等,2000)。认知心理学也可以用来指一些在其他学科和分支学科如认知神经精神病学、认知心理学、认知神经科学和认知神经心理学。有一些学科,不包括在他们的游戏行为神经生物学的认知符号、人工智能和语言学。认知心理学家使用的方法包括实验,神经心理学调查,模型(包括计算机模型)和神经成像。认知心理学与行为主义不能反应是解释人类活动的结果是相当主要的一个环节理解有刺激和反应之间没有直接的联系。有机制,目前的干预,以减少确定性的一个特定的刺激相关的,它的反应是负责的复杂的行为,这是唯一的人类,包括收购的语言。在这方面,收购的语言可以被视为一个典型的例子。认知心理学的焦点主要集中在对刺激的功能作用于认知和感知系统的心理过程。这通常有助于决定是否作出反应或不。在响应的情况下,它也有助于,在响应。而行为主义者声称,这些过程不能研究不能直接观察和测量,认知心理学家声称,这些过程加以研究,因为只有这些过程背后的原因可以解释人们如何思考和行动的方式他们(赫里福德和温,1994)。
除了是一个测试模型的工具,计算机也有两个在认知心理学中的功能。一些专家指出,由于测试认知理论开发的计算机程序能够准确预测可观察到的行为,认知活动也应该是计算机。认知科学家们已经提出了几种理论,这些理论体现了信息处理的原则,甚至在某些情况下,甚至是计算机科学的机制。在这种方式中,我们看到参考输入和输出,信息处理,数据结构,产品系统等文献与认知科学相关的。其次,认知科学提供了一种可以像人类一样思考的程序的理论和动力。人工智能领域的研究始于20世纪80年代,并取得了显着的成功,当它能够产生智能教学系统。这些特点是他们的理解能力,以及应对由一个学生的进化,同时在一个基于计算机的教程程序。这样他们成为通常因为他们需要从大量数据进行复杂的决策的专家智能咨询顾问(Bressner和yacci,1993)。

Psychology Essay 代写 :不同领域的认知心理学

The research in cognitive psychology is strongly associated with its base in theory and if it is inductive or deductive, in both the cases, it is linked with theory. But it would amount to sweeping statement if cognitive psychology is termed as basic research from which some applications have been obtained (Clancey, 1993). Furthermore, it is also well known that several cognitive psychologists work in private sector, educational sector and in several industries. From the early days of psychology till the present, keen interest has been expressed in these applications. Applied research conducted by the leading psychologists has been applied especially in topics related with human development (Duffy and Jonassen, 1992). The general belief that cognitive psychology is mainly a research of very basic nature which has little applicability in the real world needs to be dispelled. It is being successfully applied in domains like the forensic psychology, education, marketing and advertising among others (Clark and Paivio, 1991).

Cognitive psychology has several forensic applications which include deception detection and the eyewitness identification. Hugo Munsterberg did some pioneering work on psychology and law. The book written by him, “On the Witness Stand” Munsterberg has conducted the research demonstrating the capriciousness of the perception and memory of eyewitnesses. He has argued that scientific psychology can be immensely helpful to the legal community (Devlin et al., 2000). Cognitive psychology can also be used to refer to a number of activities in several other disciplines and sub disciplines like cognitive neuropsychiatry, cognitive neuropsychology, cognitive neuroscience and developmental cognitive neuropsychology. There are some disciplines which do not include the cognitive signifier in their titles like behavioural neurobiology, artificial intelligence and linguistics. The methods used by cognitive psychologists include experiments, neuropsychological investigations, models (including computer models) and neuro-imaging. The reaction of cognitive psychology against the incapability of behavioralism is to explain considerable human activity was the result principally of an apprehension of a link that there is no straightforward link between stimulus and its response. There are mechanisms present that intervene to decrease the certainty of response of a particular stimulus associated and its response is responsible for the complex behaviour which is unique to the humans including the acquisition of language. In this regard, the acquisition of language can be treated as a typical example. The focus of cognitive psychology is mainly on the mental processes which function on the stimuli which are presented to the cognitive as well as the perceptual systems. This generally contributes in the decision if a response will be made or not. In case a response is made, it also contributes, in the response. While the behaviourists claimed that these processes cannot be studied as they cannot be observed and measured directly, the cognitive psychologists have claimed that these processes have to be studied because only these processes can explain the reasons behind how the people think and act in the manner they do (Hereford and Winn, 1994).

Besides being a tool for testing models, the computer also has two more functions in cognitive psychology. Some experts have pointed out that because the computer programs developed for testing cognitive theory are able to predict accurately the observable behaviour, cognitive activity should also be computer like. Several theories have been proposed by cognitive scientists that embody the principles of information processing and in some cases even the mechanisms of computer science. In this way we see the reference to input and output, information processing, data structures, product systems and so on in the literature related with cognitive science. Secondly the theory and the impetus for creating programs that can think like the humans have been provided by cognitive science. The research in the field of artificial intelligence started in the 1980s and achieved significant success when it was able to produce intelligent tutoring systems. These were characterized by their ability to understand as well as to respond to the evolution made by a student while working on a tutorial program based on computers. In this way they become smart consultants usually for the professionals who are required to make complicated decisions out of large amount of data (Bressner and Yacci, 1993).

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