Psychology Essay 代写 ：不同领域的认知心理学
Psychology Essay 代写 ：不同领域的认知心理学
The research in cognitive psychology is strongly associated with its base in theory and if it is inductive or deductive, in both the cases, it is linked with theory. But it would amount to sweeping statement if cognitive psychology is termed as basic research from which some applications have been obtained (Clancey, 1993). Furthermore, it is also well known that several cognitive psychologists work in private sector, educational sector and in several industries. From the early days of psychology till the present, keen interest has been expressed in these applications. Applied research conducted by the leading psychologists has been applied especially in topics related with human development (Duffy and Jonassen, 1992). The general belief that cognitive psychology is mainly a research of very basic nature which has little applicability in the real world needs to be dispelled. It is being successfully applied in domains like the forensic psychology, education, marketing and advertising among others (Clark and Paivio, 1991).
Cognitive psychology has several forensic applications which include deception detection and the eyewitness identification. Hugo Munsterberg did some pioneering work on psychology and law. The book written by him, "On the Witness Stand" Munsterberg has conducted the research demonstrating the capriciousness of the perception and memory of eyewitnesses. He has argued that scientific psychology can be immensely helpful to the legal community (Devlin et al., 2000). Cognitive psychology can also be used to refer to a number of activities in several other disciplines and sub disciplines like cognitive neuropsychiatry, cognitive neuropsychology, cognitive neuroscience and developmental cognitive neuropsychology. There are some disciplines which do not include the cognitive signifier in their titles like behavioural neurobiology, artificial intelligence and linguistics. The methods used by cognitive psychologists include experiments, neuropsychological investigations, models (including computer models) and neuro-imaging. The reaction of cognitive psychology against the incapability of behavioralism is to explain considerable human activity was the result principally of an apprehension of a link that there is no straightforward link between stimulus and its response. There are mechanisms present that intervene to decrease the certainty of response of a particular stimulus associated and its response is responsible for the complex behaviour which is unique to the humans including the acquisition of language. In this regard, the acquisition of language can be treated as a typical example. The focus of cognitive psychology is mainly on the mental processes which function on the stimuli which are presented to the cognitive as well as the perceptual systems. This generally contributes in the decision if a response will be made or not. In case a response is made, it also contributes, in the response. While the behaviourists claimed that these processes cannot be studied as they cannot be observed and measured directly, the cognitive psychologists have claimed that these processes have to be studied because only these processes can explain the reasons behind how the people think and act in the manner they do (Hereford and Winn, 1994).
Besides being a tool for testing models, the computer also has two more functions in cognitive psychology. Some experts have pointed out that because the computer programs developed for testing cognitive theory are able to predict accurately the observable behaviour, cognitive activity should also be computer like. Several theories have been proposed by cognitive scientists that embody the principles of information processing and in some cases even the mechanisms of computer science. In this way we see the reference to input and output, information processing, data structures, product systems and so on in the literature related with cognitive science. Secondly the theory and the impetus for creating programs that can think like the humans have been provided by cognitive science. The research in the field of artificial intelligence started in the 1980s and achieved significant success when it was able to produce intelligent tutoring systems. These were characterized by their ability to understand as well as to respond to the evolution made by a student while working on a tutorial program based on computers. In this way they become smart consultants usually for the professionals who are required to make complicated decisions out of large amount of data (Bressner and Yacci, 1993).