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Psychology Essay 代写: 青少年社会工作者

Psychology Essay 代写: 青少年社会工作者

Adolescence is in its’ simplest form the transition between childhood and adulthood. The obvious changes are the physical changes brought about by the onset of puberty but there are also changes to way an adolescent thinks, feels, and behaves. Thompson (2008) calls adolescence a particularly important transition. His reasoning for this is that this transition calls for significantly different outlook on life and a change in perspective from that of a child to that of an adult. It involves the loss of the identity of the child and requires the formation of a new adult identity. Indeed, Erikson (1968) states that the search for identity leads to the primary crisis of adolescence.

Social workers generally become involved with adolescents when their behaviour becomes problematic therefore an understanding of the factors that lead to this problematic behaviour would be advantageous in planning interventions. Poor parenting skills are linked to teenage delinquency. Farrington (2004) explains that, “families that are low in warmth, high in conflict and use harsh, inconsistent discipline are consistently found to be factors relating to the formation of delinquent behaviour.” If parents are inconsistent with discipline at a young age and give in to childish tantrums, the child learns that they are not punished if they are aggressive or throw a tantrum. As the child moves on to adolescence this learned behaviour continues leading the adolescent to the conclusion that violence or aggression are a way getting what they want. Applying Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning we could argue that the threat of punishment is the conditioned stimulus that produces the aggression or violence as a conditioned response. It could be that the aggressive behaviour has become a reflexive reaction to uncomfortable situations. (Farrington and Loeber, 2000) Tell us that this aggressive behaviour that is formed in childhood is far more likely to lead to lifelong problems than aggressive behaviour formed in adolescence which tends to be transitory. This would suggest to the social worker, that work with families with young children encountering parenting problems is important in reducing future problems of delinquent behaviour. However, the social worker, working with the teenager may perceive that this early onset aggressive behaviour is now inbuilt and therefore unchangeable.

The effects of puberty and increased levels of testosterone have been linked with increased aggression, risk-taking, and egocentric behaviour in adolescent males. However a recent scientific study by the Universities of Zurich and Royal Holloway London have shown this not to be the case and they concluded instead that rather than increase aggression, testosterone increases sensitivity to status; their study showed that subjects with increased testosterone showed more pro-social behaviour. Science Daily (Dec. 9, 2009) However this study was conducted on adults and if their conclusion is accepted maladapted adolescents may view aggression as a way to achieve social status. It could therefore be argued that testosterone is indeed a factor in the formation of aggressive behaviour in adolescents.

Parents often offer the explanation, “He/she has fallen in with a bad crowd.” When their teenage son/daughter presents problematic behaviour. Certainly in areas of deprivation and high crime there are plenty of bad crowds with whom the adolescent can associate. Why, though does the adolescent choose to associate with criminals? Steinberg and Silverberg (1986) found that as emotional autonomy increases and the adolescent becomes less reliant on their parents resistance to peer pressure increases. However, Ryan and Lynch (1989) found flaw with their findings and argued that they were not measuring emotional autonomy but rather emotional detachment; they argued that the adolescents were compensating for a lack of emotional support from their parents with a greater reliance on their peer group. The need for support and a quest for identity could be influential in an adolescent’s decision to join gangs. Taking on the identity of a gang member can be seen as a form of what Erikson calls identity foreclosure; where the individual does not form their own identity but takes on the identity of their peers. Indeed, peer influence on behaviour is a factor and as such removing the bad influence and replacing this influence with a more positive role model can certainly be a positive intervention. Also working with the family to improve relations and understanding of the issues would appear to be an effective solution.

Having looked at the importance of family relationships in the formation of behaviour it may be useful to look at the effects of changes in the family unit. Family units are not static, relationships change, parents may separate and form new relationships, family members may die, and children are born. All of these factors can have an impact on the behaviour of the adolescent.

Psychology Essay 代写: 青少年社会工作者

青春期是最简单的形式,在童年和成年之间的过渡。这些明显的变化是由青春期的开始带来的物理变化,但也有改变的方式一个青少年认为,感觉和行为。汤普森(2008)称青春期是一个特别重要的过渡期。他的理由是,这一过渡要求显着不同的人生观和一个变化的角度来看,从一个孩子到一个成年人。它涉及到的孩子的身份的损失,并要求形成一个新的成人身份。事实上,埃里克森(1968)指出,寻找身份导致了青春期的主要危机。
社会工作者普遍成为参与青少年时,他们的行为成为有问题的,因此,理解的因素,导致这种有问题的行为将是有利的规划干预措施。穷人的育儿技巧与青少年犯罪。Farrington(2004)解释说,“在低家庭温暖,高冲突和使用苛刻的,不一致的纪律一直被认为是属于违法行为形成的因素。“如果父母在年轻的时候,违反纪律,给孩子气的发脾气,孩子学习,他们没有如果他们是积极的或发脾气的惩罚。当孩子进入青春期时,这种学习的行为会继续导致青少年的结论是,暴力或侵略是一种得到他们想要的东西。应用巴甫洛夫的经典条件反射理论,我们可以认为,惩罚的威胁是空调的刺激,产生的侵略或暴力作为一个条件反应。它可能是侵略性的行为已成为一个不舒服的情况下的反身性反应。(Farrington,Loeber,2000)告诉我们,这种激进的行为是在儿童时期形成更可能导致攻击性行为的青少年比趋于暂时形成终身的问题。这个建议的社会工作者,工作的年轻孩子们遇到育儿问题的家庭在减少犯罪行为的未来的问题是很重要的。然而,社会工作者,与青少年工作的可能认为这早发的攻击行为是内在的,因此现在不变。
青春期和睾酮水平升高的影响一直增加的侵略,冒险联系在一起,与青春期男性自我中心的行为。然而,在苏黎世和伦敦皇家霍洛威大学最近的一项科学研究表明这种情况并非如此,他们的结论是相反的,而不是增加侵略性,增加睾酮的敏感状况;他们的研究表明,受试者表现出更多的亲社会行为增加睾酮。每日科学(2009年12月9日)然而,这项研究是在成人,如果他们的结论是接受不适应青少年进行可能认为作为一种方式来获得社会地位。因此,可以认为,睾酮确实是在青少年攻击性行为的形成的一个因素。
父母经常提供解释,“他/她已经与一个坏的人群下降。”当他们的十几岁的儿子/女儿出现问题的行为。当然,在剥夺和高犯罪的领域,有大量的不良人群,青少年可以联想到他们的地方。为什么,青少年选择与罪犯交往?斯坦伯格(1986)研究发现,青少年情感自主性增加,变得不那么依赖于父母,抗压力增加。然而,赖安和林奇(1989)发现缺陷与他们的研究结果,认为他们没有测量情感自主性而是情感脱离;他们认为青少年是补偿缺乏情感上的支持,从他们的父母在他们的同龄人更大的依赖。支持和寻求身份的需要可能是有影响力的青少年的决定加入帮派。以一个团伙成员的身份可以被看作是一种埃里克森所谓的身份丧失抵押品赎回权的形式,其中的个人不形成自己的身份,但需要他们的同龄人的身份。事实上,同伴对行为的影响是一个因素,这样的消除不良影响,并用一个更积极的作用模型来取代这种影响肯定是一个积极的干预。也与家庭改善关系和理解的问题,似乎是一个有效的解决方案。

 

 

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