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生物论文代写 Anti Platelet Drugs Preventing Aggregation

↓Thromboxane A2 Synthesis

One of the main medication that inhibits thromobxane A2 synthesis is aspirin; its chemical name is acetylsalicylic acid.

Aspirin

Aspirin works by several mechanisms; it prevents production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. This is done by its ability to irreversibly inactivate the cyclooxygenase enzyme, also known as PTGS enzyme. This enzyme in our body is required for production of prostaglandins and thromboxane; to stay on course, thromboxane is the cause for blood clot formation. So when we block the synthesis for thromboxane, it reduces platelet aggregation, and therefore prevent further diseases.

On a side note, prostaglandins are hormones that are part of trasnmission of pain signals to the brain, fixation of the hypothalmic thermostat, and inflammation.

Another mechanism is inhibiting COXI and COXII – therefore called non-selective COX inhibitors – also called Prostaglandins I and Prostaglandins II. Due to inhibiting COX II, it has an anti-inflammatory effect.

Moreover, aspirin has some some contraindications that we must be aware of. People with allergies to ibuprofen or naproxen, or who have salicylate intolerance, should not take aspirin. Most importantly, aspirin should not be taken if you are a child/teenager with the chicken pox or the influenza – this will cause rey’s syndrome and can be fatal. Finally, if you are someone who has bleeding problems, or bleed severly in a bad state, or have a condition called hemophillia, aspirin should be avoided to prevent severe blood loss.

The side effects of aspirin are just as cautious as any other medication; we all know that everyone’s system can respond differently to a medication, so we must all be careful. This aspirin medication can cause side effects such as, heartburn, nausea, stomach problems, in which you can take pepto bismol. If severe side effects occur such as, allergic reactions, irregular color stools, bruising, vomiting, or anything very severe, this must seek the attention of a medical doctor.

Finally, aspirin is used for many symptoms. Because aspirin is a non selective COX inhibitor, it is said to be anti-inflammatory drug; as well as an analgesic. Aspirin relieves pain, headaches, a cold, sore throat, and is used to reduce the fever. Aspirin is also used as a blood thinner, so it is classified as an anti-platelet in which it prevents heart diseases or any kind of stroke.

ADP – receptor blockers

One of the main drugs that work as an ADP – receptor blocker is called plavix; its generic name is called clopidogrel.

Plavix

Plavix is anti-platelet agent that works as an ADP-receptor blocker; Mode of action of clopidogrel

As we see in this diagram, we understand that clopidogrel works as an inhibitor of ADP – induced platelet aggregation. It is important to mention that plavix is a non-competitive inhibitory that binds irreversibly to the platelet membrane receptors. What is very interesting is once the platelets are shown to plavix, they are affected until their death, which is roughly 7 to 10 days. Plavix does not work on COX and can as well inhibit induced platelet aggregation

ADP binding is necessary for activation of the GPIIb/IIIa receptor, which is the binding site for fibrinogen. Fibrinogen links different platelets together to form the platelet aggregate. Clopidogrel thus ultimately inhibits the activation of the GPIIb/IIIa receptor, its binding to fibrinogen and further platelet aggregation.

Moving on, Plavix should not be used if the patient is allergic to any of the medicinal ingredients produced in the drug. Also, if a patient has a bleeding disorder such as an ulcer or bleeding in the brain hemisphere, plavix should not be taken. And finally, plavix should not be taken if a patient is taking any fungal medications such ketoconazole, and any proton pump inhibitors.

Furthermore, the side effects to plavix are very similar to aspirin, with a few more to keep in mind as plavix is a more potent anti-platelet agent then aspirin. Plavix has minor side effects such as easy bruising, minor bleeding; it can become severe if allergic reactions occur such as rash, itchiness, difficult in breathing, eye bleeding, blurry vision, severe, constant headaches that can lead to migraines. If any of these symptoms occur, its usually a sign that shows plavix is not the drug of choice for this patient, even though it is the drug of choice for treatment.

Finally, plavix has many uses, primarily as an anti-platelet as we have already said before. Plavix, like aspirin, reduces any risk for strokes, heart diseases, or any attacks; it only reduces the risks on patients who have had a history of any heart diseases. Patients who have had any history of unstable angina can also use plavix. One thing that is important to know about plavix is that it is a platelet aggregation inhibitor. It works on the body by slowing or stopping platelets from sticking to blood vessels or any injured tissues.

↑cGMP

Another method of an anti-platelet agent, is a drug that is classified under ↑cGMP, such as Nitrates. An example of a nitrate is nitroglycerin – its brand name is Nitro-Dur.

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