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生物论文代写 Chinese Medicinal Herbs In Urinary Tract Infection Treatment

生物论文代写 Chinese Medicinal Herbs In Urinary Tract Infection Treatment

Assessing complementary therapies such as traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and its use in acute and recurrent UTI. To know which herbs are commonly used in acute and recurrent UTI and whether they have active components.

To determine mechanisms of action and antibacterial properties of traditional medicinal herbs in the treatment of acute and recurrent UTI.


If common traditional Chinese medicinal herbs utilized in UTI are tested then unknown properties could be found and therefore alternative approaches other than using antibiotics could be adopt.


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered to be the most common bacterial infection. It can be defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the urine, urethra, bladder, or prostate. In most cases threshold of bacteria is greater than≥10⁴ colony forming units per millilitre (cfu/ml). (1) Usually classified by the site of infection, it includes cystitis, pyelonephritis, and urine bacteriuria. The epidemiology of infection varies with sex, age, and presence of associated genitourinary abnormalities.(2)

Women are significantly more likely to experience UTI than men. Nearly 1 in 3 women will have had at least one episode of UTI by the age of 24 and almost half of all women will experience one UTI during their lifetime.(3) In the USA, every year over 11 million women reported having UTI accounting for S 1.6 billion in medical cost,(4) in Europe, there are no good data concerning the prevalence of various types of UTIs and their impact on the quality of life of the affected population.(5)

UTIs are caused by a variety of types of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumonie. Signs and symptoms of UTIs are typically cloudy urine, dysuria,haematuria ,urinary frequency lower abdominal pain and low back pain. Furthermore infection is accompanied by inflammation.(6)The term acute UTI refers mainly to acute symptomatic cystitis.(7) Recurrent UTI refers to attacks of cystitis, but some have frequent recurrences (e.g. more than twice/yr). (8)

When the body’s normal immune cannot eradicate pathogen it is often treated with chemotherapeutic agents such as antibiotics. Antibiotics have reduced bacterial infectious diseases but its inappropriate prescribe has contributed to drug resistance. (9)Alternative methods are needed in the treatment against those infections. Despite the modernity of Western medicine,(10) it cannot be denied that Chinese medicinal treatments date back as early as 700 B.C. and the Taoists were the first to develop what is known as traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)(11). Chinese medicine has been successful in establishing a position as a complementary and alternative therapy in the west, especially UK and USA The herbal site of Chinese medicine came relatively late to the UK in comparison with acupuncture.(12).These complementary therapies are potentially reach sources of compounds to combat pathogenic bacteria.

Chinese herbal theory, defines the character and functions of each herb, which include property, functional tendency, meridian channel tropism, and toxicity. Chinese herbal theory is based on the theory of Yin-Yang and the Five Phases which are the foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine. In addition each herb is related to Zang-Fu organs and Meridian channel systems.(13) The Yin Yang represents a state of good health in which a person has a balance. Any form of life depends on substance and activity. Substance is Yin; it is the stuff our bodies are made of: bones, muscles, internal on blood, fluid and so on. Activity is Yang; it is movement or transformation including the transformation required to repair and build body tissue.(14)The way to preserve health and achieve longevity is to maintain a harmony of Yin and Yang. This means creating a balance between substance and activity that will maximize Qi (close to energy), which is necessary for all life functions.

生物论文代写 Chinese Medicinal Herbs In Urinary Tract Infection Treatment