Tourism 论文代写: Issues And Challenges In The Asian Tourism

8 年前 580次浏览 Tourism 论文代写: Issues And Challenges In The Asian Tourism已关闭评论

Tourism 论文代写:在当今世界,旅游业是最重要和最重要的经济活动,因为它直接产生产品、服务、外汇、投资和就业。在SAARC国家,旅游业已经成为一个繁荣的服务业,它对整个国家的发展产生了深远的社会经济影响。国际旅游业也有着复杂的联系,政府发展战略和计划和其他行业,这意味着它影响到其他经济活动的多样性和结构在区域和国家的水平。国际旅游收入占全球服务业和商品出口额的2010,占全球服务业出口的11,旅游业占服务出口额的比例上升至近32。在经济增长方面,全球旅游业自2000以来一直停滞不前,但在整个2010 - 2004的强劲复苏。2004年底和2005年初,海啸和印度洋地震造成的破坏对亚洲重要旅游目的地的数量产生了重大影响。




In today world, tourism is the most significant and important economic activity, because it directly generates products, services, foreign currency, investments and employment. In SAARC countries where tourism industry has become a flourishing service industry, it has a far-reaching social and economic impact on overall national development. International tourism industry also has complex linkages to government development strategies & plans and to other industries, which means that it affects the diversity and structure of other economic activities at the regional and national levels. International tourism receipts represented approximately 11 per cent of worldwide exports of services and goods in 2010; the share of tourism as part of service exports increased to nearly 32 per cent. In terms of growth, the tourism industry worldwide had been stagnant since 2000, but made a strong recovery throughout 2004 -2010. At the end of 2004 and in early 2005, the devastation caused by the tsunami and Indian Ocean earthquake had a significant impact on a number of important Asian tourism destinations.

Several international and regional forces beyond direct private sector or government control, as well as extraordinary crises and disruptions, have produced a fast-changing variety of complex patterns for international tourism in the region. The current paper considers major challenges and issues in the tourism sector in terms of sustainable development over the long term, and in terms of Socio-economic development, crisis and risk management and poverty reduction for the Asian tourism industry.

Keywords: Asia, Tourism, employment, Export, services, products, foreign tourists, social and economic impact, risk management


We, Prof. Farooq.A. Khan & Showkat Hussain, hereby declare that the paper entitled "Issues and Challenges in the Asian Tourism Industry" submitted to the 10th ITC National Tourism Conference, to be held on March 8-10, 2013 is an original research work based on relevant reports and investigation carried out by us. The present research paper has not been submitted or accepted for publication elsewhere. We shall be responsible for the facts and opinions made by us in the paper.

Prof. Farooq.A. Khan Showkat Hussain

Faculty, The Business School Research Scholar,

University of Kashmir University of Kashmir


Tourism has become progressively important for many Pacific and Asian countries that have opened their economies and drawn up policies, plans and strategies designed to sustain their national tourism industries. The significance of tourism has been growing in terms of the potential benefits for tourism stakeholders and the dynamics of national socio-economic development, while allied risks have been created by complicated new challenges. The major challenges of development of tourism involve the role of the tourism industry in socio-economic development and how it might contribute to reduction of poverty (UNP, Vol No. E.03.II.F.46). Generally, poverty reduction related to tourism can be seen in terms of how to develop and expand socio-economic benefits; how to distribute benefits to more society segments, particularly poor people; how to minimize adverse impacts; and how to provide the required support to advance, sustainable and sound tourism development.

In order to sustain development of tourism as a viable socio-economic activity within the process of globalization and ensure that its contribution to poverty reduction is effective, all stakeholders must be aware of five main issue areas. Analysis and awareness in these issue areas would enable stakeholders to take decisions, plan actions and devise strategies that are appropriate at the local, regional and national levels to meet the challenges facing the tourism industry. Following are the five main issues considered for the development of tourism. They are:

Enhancing the role of tourism in development of socio-economic and poverty reduction

Socio-economic benefits of tourism needs to be developed and expanded in order to provide the support, minimize any adverse impact and have wider distribution necessary to foster sound tourism industry development. The process of globalization, along with more widespread improved access to communication technologies, and information, has increased the potential opportunities for the tourism sector to expand, develop and make greater contributions to economic and social development. In this regard, the importance of e-tourism as a way to give developing countries the technical means to market and promote their tourism venues and services on line.

The private sector, the Government and local communities have roles in encouraging local participation, building linkages, and creating partnerships. The role of the Government is to create a more supportive planning framework and policy enabling participation by the poor. The private sector and the Government can increase participation by the poor in decision-making by ensuring that local people are consulted and have a say in tourism decision-making. The private sector can create poor partnerships. Poor people can participate through producers' associations. The private sector and the poor can establish both formal and informal links with each other. All stakeholders can increase the flow of information by meeting periodically, and sharing plans and news to build a basis for the development of tourism industry and further dialogue.

In order to increase the contribution of tourism, and make use of these potential opportunities, stakeholders must be aware of dynamic environment and rapid changes in the international tourism market. For example, the numbers of visitors and tourism demand have been growing much faster than tourism receipts, while independent travel and the demand in niche tourism markets have been growing faster than group travel to standard destinations. The increased accessibility and widespread coverage of the Internet is changing the nature of the national & international tourism market and the framework for choices by national & international tourists.

The benefit of specific interventions could be considered in terms of spreading development to regions and groups of people that may not have benefited from other types of economic development and diversifying a country's economic base. There are a different ways to enhance linkages so that tourism industry makes an increased contribution to poverty reduction, increasing economic base and enabling poor people to participate more effectively. There are several types of poor tourism strategies, ranging from increasing local employment to building mechanisms for consultation. The critical factor is demonstrating that the increased benefits are going to poor and unemployed people.

Expanding socio-economic benefits and distributing those benefits to segments of society that include the unemployed and poor, require a focused approach to tourism management and development that identifies categories of unemployed and poor people and then creates linkages between tourism businesses and those categories of unemployed and poor people. It is important to have some benchmark, indicators of what defines the conditions of poverty, such as the national poverty line for household incomes.

Tourism development strategies that contribute to poverty reduction have been identified according to three categories of local benefit. The first category covers economic benefits, which include increasing local employment and wages, improving local enterprise opportunities and creating collective income sources, such as fees and revenue shares. The second category covers other livelihood benefits, such as physical, cultural or social improvements, with a focus on providing capacity-building and training, addressing competing uses of natural resources, mitigating environmental impacts, improving cultural and social impacts and increasing local access to services and infrastructure. The third category covers less tangible benefits, such as involvement and participation in partnerships, which could be enhanced at the local level by creating a more supportive planning/policy framework, building poor partnerships with the private sector, increasing the participation of the poor in decision-making, and increasing flows of information and communication with local stakeholders, especially the unemployed and poor youths.

While tourism can contribute to the process of poverty reduction, disasters and crises have demonstrated significant risks when relying solely on tourism. Consequently, there is a need for government and agencies outside the tourism sector to devise more broadly based poverty reduction programmes and strategies that include links with the tourism sector.

Facilitation of travel and development of transport and other tourism related infrastructure

Governments and associate members of the tourism have the main role in creating procedures and rules covering visas, border formalities and customs regulations in order to control the flow of people, especially tourist arrivals. Both receiving and sending countries have policies on visas and related travel formalities that may reflect concerns about safety, security and health. However, there are also concerns about travel requirements and tourism development, especially when Governments make it a priority industry. There has been a general trend to liberalize policies on travel and visas formalities during the period of strong growth in international tourism.

Constraints on development of tourism have been related to the scope and strength of visa restrictions, the complexity of various procedures for obtaining visas and the general lack of accurate and clear information on visa costs and requirements. Facilitating travel by increasing efficiency and reducing impediments is a government responsibility, but could be done unilaterally, bilaterally, regionally or internationally through negotiations and consultations. Some international consultations have taken place in relation to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) through a voluntary working group hosted by the World Tourism Organization. There have been regional and sub-regional initiatives in Asia as well as bilateral agreements. However, only exit visas from the sending country are subject to GATS consumption abroad commitments, while entry visas are not. The main issue is the need to adjust and evaluate entry visa policies and requirement that may be impeding tourism development in many Pacific and Asian countries.

Tourism industry can also be developed more effectively by improving infrastructure to facilitate tourism and travel. Special planning and attention that focus on accessibility are required when Governments improve and expand rail, road, water and air transport infrastructure as part of tourism development. One noteworthy issue concerns identifying the infrastructure that needs to be upgraded at secondary airports and tourist Centre's outside the main urban areas in order to diversify tourist destinations. In this context, the social and economic rationale for developing barrier-free tourism, identifying existing barriers and learning from best practices could be highlighted in many countries of Asia. The travel needs of identifying new market segments have been categorized as barrier-free tourism and highlight issues of appropriate and accessible infrastructure.

Environmental and Socio-cultural management of tourism

Increased numbers of tourists and rapid growth can have a combination of positive and negative impacts on the environment, culture and society. As tourism expands and grows to more locations, the negative impact could affect the both short-term as well as long-term sustainability of tourism, especially in places where appropriate control is lacking. Sustainable/ecological tourism development must be considered as the essence of tourism and applied fully in all countries, since tourism is based on the diversity of cultural, social and natural resources which attracts tourists in the first place. Furthermore, countries and areas in Asia have recognized that sustainable tourism development is the only way to effectively address environmental concerns as well as contribute to economic growth, job creation, authenticity and conserve cultural heritage, as well as contribute to cultural exchanges and increase inter-cultural understanding and tolerance.

According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), sustainable development of tourism means applying principles of (a) optimal use of environmental resources in ways that maintain the ecology and conserve biodiversity and natural heritage; (b) respect for the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities in ways that conserve their cultural heritage and values while contributing to intercultural tolerance and understanding and (c) providing all stakeholders with benefits that are fairly distributed, while ensuring the viability of long-term economic processes & procedures.

Important issues of sustainable development of tourism include efficient coordination, effective planning, constructive governance and more capable enforcement of legislation. While many private and public sector decision makers involved in tourism management and planning have realized that cultural and environmental resources are essential components and valuable tourism assets, substantive progress in applying systematic planning based on principles that also include economic sustainability has been limited. The principles of sustainable tourism have been widely accepted, but actual implementation by local governments, regional and national, as well as by tourism entrepreneurs, has sometimes been slow and only partially successful. The issue of economic sustainability needs more comprehensive consideration along with the cultural and environmental aspects.

Another issue concerns the potential for voluntary initiatives, such as certification, to achieve sustainable development objectives. Some entrepreneurs in the private sector have adopted and created voluntary initiatives in recognition of the importance of sustainable tourism, such as social and environmental codes of conduct, environmental audit programmes, eco-certification systems, environmental management systems and other self-regulation codes or schemes involving the socio-cultural or natural environment. As the term indicates, voluntary initiatives are not the result of legislation but rather are adopted freely by those who see a number of social, public and economic relations benefits.

Risk and Crisis management in tourism

Tourism has been directly affected by a variety of unforeseen incidents that have affected development and patterns of growth of tourism industry in recent years. In the Asia, the tourism industry has faced greater vulnerability and uncertainty as a result of turmoil, natural disasters and health crises. The risks, responses and lessons learned raise several important issues related to growth of tourism industry. In terms of risk, crisis and management must be considered in a systematic manner. By its nature, a crisis is sudden, unexpected and often unpredictable. There needs to be awareness about the scope of the effects, i.e, limited to a single destination, an area covering several countries, a whole region or a sub-region, or the whole world.

Specific issues when responding to violent incidents and crises involve disaster awareness and preparedness; the immediate response, including the psychological, physical, and combined impact; dealing with misinformation and speculation, especially in the global mass media; ways to restore the confidence of businesses and tourists; dealing with panic; and responding to reactions from other Governments, such as travel bans, restrictions and advisories. Response capabilities in terms of proactive measures coordination concern more general issues that cover the well-being of all businesses, citizens and tourists.

Development of human resources in the tourism sector

The rapid and progressive growth rates in the tourism industry have a direct impact on tourism employment and development of human resources in terms of demand for professionals, specific skills and related education and training facilities. The need to train and develop the required human resources in various segments of the tourism sector has been widely recognised in Asia and other countries.

There has been progress on four main issues (acknowledged at the Inter-governmental Meeting on Tourism Development held in 1996), but they still require consideration in view of the limitations and constraints that are still found in human resources development. The four main issues are (a) the shortage of qualified human resources, (b) gaps in the availability of qualified trainers and teachers, and tourism training infrastructure, (c) the lack of attention given to the work conditions in the tourism industry, and (d) the ongoing need for long-term national policies and strategies covering development of human resources in the tourism industry.


Several recommendations emerge from the issues presented in this paper. It is recommended that development of tourism be given enhanced priority within national policymaking and development planning. It is also recognised that tourism can play a role in working towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. As a result, strategies should be formulated to expand the role of tourism in socio-economic development and poverty reduction.

Improving the role of tourism in poverty reduction, employment generation and socio-economic development

Governments continue to consider building a supportive planning and policy framework conducive to the tourism development aimed at poverty reduction and employment generation. The private sector, stakeholders, and the Government are encouraged to take collaborative action to develop enterprise and employment opportunities for the unemployed and poor. Such actions would include improvement of the work quality, skills and capacity of people who are poor and unemployed through training and upgrading the skills related to services of tourism, including improved access to resource and market information. The capacity of local communities to manage natural resources could be strengthened in order to create awareness and enhance the environmental effects of tourism on unemployed youth and poor people.

There should be awareness that established business firms which comprise the mainstream tourism industry have already been helping the unemployed youth and poor people, for example, through employment generation in certain categories of work. This awareness should lead to the recognition that it is possible to do more in their role as stakeholders who can create opportunities for tourism sector to contribute more to unemployment and poverty reduction.

Such issues point to the need and importance to explore the transmission mechanisms from tourism to reduction of poverty and unemployment. Assembling and disseminating research studies sheds light on these issues and highlights approaches for building partnerships and enhancing participation that promote greater involvement of unemployed youths, poor people and communities in tourism development.

Development of transport and Facilitation of travel and other tourism-related infrastructure

Various modes of transport, particularly by air, water and road, need to be improved in combination with upgraded tourism related infrastructure to facilitate access to tourist spots and sites. It should be possible to develop guidelines for barrier free tourism practices within the Asian and Pacific region for facilities and services involved with tourism sites, tour programmes, accommodation, and transport that can be made more accessible for tourists who have disabilities. Efforts to facilitate travel should be strengthened by considering the costs and benefits of greater liberalisation of visa procedures, policies and cross-border regulations/formalities.

Environmental and Socio-cultural management of tourism

It is recommended that socio-cultural and environmental considerations be better integrated into plans and policies for development of tourism. Such considerations can be preceded by understanding the economic, social, and technological dynamics of the globalisation of the tourism sector. Major issues for tourism growth relate to how the globalisation challenge affects the ability to operate under changing business conditions requiring responsiveness and rapid decision cycles to new forms of competition.

It is recommended that a combination of more effective enforcement of relevant laws, an active role for civil society and voluntary initiatives, be initiated in order to achieve broader, more substantive growth and progress in applying the principles of sustainable development of tourism. Collaborative approaches that include the private sector, the public sector, and stakeholders in implementation, planning, and coordination should be encouraged at the local levels in order to protect the environment, preserve the cultural heritage, and ensure more justifiable distribution of economic benefits. The diversification of economic activities and the distribution of economic benefits are key considerations in the sustainable development of tourism. The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism of the World Tourism Organization, which applies to all stakeholders, are useful tools for promoting greater understanding and awareness of the environmental, socio-cultural and economic effects of tourism on various groups of stakeholders, including unemployed youth and poor people.

Risk and Crisis management in tourism

In view of the greater vulnerability and uncertainty of the tourism sector, it is recommended that all stakeholders give thorough, more careful attention to different types of crises and related risk management. A process with four distinct phases: awareness (risk reduction), planning (readiness), recovery and response are described further in the paper on crisis and risk management in tourism. These phases or stages provide a framework for more detailed recommendations. Emphasis is given to the role of government agencies involved in the tourism industry to add risk and crisis management analysis to ongoing destination analysis with a focus on existing or potential opportunities, threats and weaknesses. Therefore, it is also recommended that the tourism industry should establish a network of regional and national risk and crisis management Centre's.

Development of Human resources in the tourism sector

The ongoing need to train and develop the human resources required to provide tourism services efficiently and effectively leads to the recommendation that networking and partnerships to support tourism training and education be strengthened. Regional cooperation in sustainable development of tourism could mobilise regional and international organizations to provide supporting action in appropriate issue areas that link unemployment and poverty reduction to tourism development. Multi-stakeholder groups could be involved in catalytic local and regional initiatives that incorporate innovative strategies as well as expand the implementation of sustainable and proven approaches/methods.


Ashley, C. and Garland, E. (1994) Promoting community-based tourism development: what,why and how? Research Discussion Paper No. 4 ; In

Burns Peter and Holden Andrew, (1995), Tourism a New Perspective, Prentice hall, London.

Butler, R.W.(1991), Tourism environment and sustainable development. Environmental Conservation 18(3), 201-9. J.G Nelson, R.W. Butler and G. Wall (eds) Tourism and Sustainable Development: Monitoring, Planning, Management (pp.27-43).

Conroy, C. and Litvinoff, M. (eds) The greening of Aid: Sustainable livelihoods in practice, Local participation in ecotourism projects, In Whelan, T. (ed) Nature tourism, Island press, Washington,

De Franco, A. L. and Noriega B. M. (2000), Cost control in the Hospitality Industry, prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Jafari, J. (1990) Research and scholarship: The basis of tourism education. Journal of Tourism Studies 1(1), 33-41. In J. Van den Bergh (ed.) Tourism Management 7(7), 475-9.

Leiper, N. (1995) Tourism Management. Collingwood, Victoria: RMIT.

Published Reports,

First International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism, held in Djerba, Tunisia, in April 2003.

International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, held in Mauritius in January 2005

Published by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (Montreal, Canada, 2004).

Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Tourism Development (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.II.F.46).

World Tourism Organization Meeting on Harnessing Tourism for the Millennium Development Goals, held in New York on 13 September 2005.

World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in August-September 2002.

World Tourism Organization, held in Santiago in September-October 1999 (officially recognized by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 56/212 of 21 December 2001).