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修改论文英文 Tetracycline Antibiotics General Structure Biology Essay

Tetracyclines are used to treat many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. They are also effective on some protozoa. In other words they are used against a large variety of infections. (Todar K.T 2009). However due to the issue of bacterial resistance, these antibiotics have significantly decreased in value. (Speer et al.1992).

Tetracyclines are mainly used as a treatment for acne, eye infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, urinary tract infections and Lyme disease. (Ogbru and Marks 2008). Other bacterial infections which usually result in the prescription of tetracyclines include Chlamydia, rickettsia, brucella and the spirochaeta. As well as the previously mentioned, there are many other infections in which tetracyclines are administered since it is such a broad spectrum antibiotic.

Tetracyclines, for example Tetracycline hydrochloride, Demeclocycline hydrochloride, Doxycycline, Lymecycline, Oxytetracycline, Tigecycline are essentially able to treat the same infections. Minocycline, another member of the tetracycline family, has a broader spectrum; it is active against Neisseria Meningitidis as well as the infections treated by the other tetracyclines.

Tetracyclines have similar side effects but each individual drug does come with some added ones. These include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing), and oesophageal irritation. Other rare side effects have been noted such as acute renal failure and skin discolouration. (Joint Formulary Committee 2007, British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain2008).

The dosages of tetracyclines i.e. when taken orally are usually 250mg, every 6 hours. This should be increased in severe infections to 500mg every 6-8hours. However this dosage does not apply to the different types of tetracyclines; each specific tetracycline has a specific dosage according to its strength. (Joint Formulary Committee 2007, British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain 2008).

四环素类药物是用于治疗革兰氏阳性菌和革兰氏阴性菌。他们也有一些原生动物。换句话说,它们是用来对付各种各样的感染的。(Todar K. 2009)。然而,由于细菌耐药性的问题,这些抗生素有显着下降的价值。(Speer等人,1992)。

四环素类药物主要用于治疗痤疮、眼部感染、肺炎、淋病、落基山斑疹热,尿路感染莱姆病。(Ogbru和标志2008)。在对四环素类抗生素的处方,通常会导致其他细菌感染包括衣原体、立克次体、螺旋体、布鲁氏菌。如前面所提到的,还有很多其他的感染,四环素类药因为它是这样一种广谱抗生素。

四环素类药物,例如盐酸四环素、盐酸去甲金霉素,强力霉素,赖甲四环素,土霉素,替加环素是能够把同样的感染。米诺环素,四环素家族的另一成员,有一个广泛的;它是积极反对Neisseria Meningitidis以及其他四环素类抗生素治疗感染。

四环素类药物有相似的副作用,但个别药物也会有加的。这些包括恶心,呕吐,腹泻,吞咽困难(吞咽困难),和食管的刺激。其他罕见的副作用已经指出如急性肾功能衰竭和皮肤变色。(联合药典委员会2007个,英国医学协会和大britain2008皇家医药学会)。

的剂量口服四环素即通常250mg,每6小时一次。这应该是在严重感染增加500mg每6-8小时。然而这种剂量不适用于四环素类药物的不同类型;根据其强度每一个具体的四环素具有特定的剂量。(联合药典委员会2007个,英国医学协会和英国皇家药学会2008)。

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