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As mentioned previously, coaching experience and the observation of other coaches remain primary sources of coaching knowledge (Cushion, 2007, Cushion and Jones, 2001, Gilbert and Trudel, 2001, Gould et al., 1990). Gould et al. (1990) recognised the importance of “experiential knowledge and informal education” (p.34). Additionally coaching principles and opinions of coaching were found to be shaped by social and observational opportunities (Cushion et al., 2003). This suggests that observation is not an isolated process rather it is impacted by the coach’s interaction with others. Cushion, Armour & Jones (2003) suggested that coaches serve an apprenticeship of observation which occurs in two stages: performers acquiring knowledge through observation, and as neophyte coaches working with and observing experienced coaches. Coaches, with previous playing experience, get a good opportunity to learn about coaching from their own coaches. Coaches, therefore, often serve an informal apprenticeship of prolonged observation, which familiarises them with the task of coaching (Cushion and Jones, 2001). Neophyte coaches also, in affect serve an apprenticeship through the observation of the behaviour of more experienced coaches at work in the coaching environment through games and practice.


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